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(Ship: t. 547; s. 11~ k.; cpl. 40; a. 4 24-pdrs.)
The first Supply-a ship-rigged sailing vessel purchased by the Navy at Boston late in 1846 for service during the Mexican War-was delivered to the government at the Boston Navy Yard on 8 December 1846 and was commissioned there on 19 December, Lt. John Calhoun in command.
Supply sailed for the Gulf of Mexico on 21 January 1847 and supported the Home Squadron's operations against Mexico serving as a store ship until late in the summer when Commodore Matthew C. Perry reduced the size of his force in Mexican waters after the American evacuation of Tabasco. Supply returned to New York on 26 September.
Exactly two months later, the ship, now commanded by Lt. William F. Lynch, departed New York harbor and proceeded to the Mediterranean with equipment and stores to be used in an expedition to explore the Dead Sea. She reached Gibraltar on the afternoon of 19 December, and proceeded to Port Mahon with supplies for the Mediterranean Squadron. There the ship was delayed in quarantine for a fortnight because of two cases of smallpox which occurred on board. After finally delivering stores to the American warships, she resumed her voyage to the Levant on 4 February 1848.
After touching at Malta on the 9th, the ship reached Smyrna, Turkey, on the 16th. There Lt. Lynch left the ship and proceeded to Constantinople to obtain permission from the Sultan for the expedition before returning on board on 11 March. After twice getting underway and being forced back to Smyrna by bad weather, the ship finally sailed to Syria and reached Beirut on the 25th; and the expedition left the ship and proceeded on to the Jordan River and the Dead Sea. Lynch's report of the exploration is still, in the 1970's, cited as a primary source of information on the area.
Meanwhile, Supply cruised in the Mediterranean. When she returned, late in August, she learned that the exploring party had successfully completed their undertaking and that Lynch, forced by the poor health of his men, had chartered a small French brig to carry them to Malta. Supply then headed west and reached Malta on 11 September. There, Lynch and the entire expedition party reembarked; and the ship returned to the United States. She reached Norfolk, Va., on 8 December and was decommissioned there on the 17th.
Recommissioned on 17 February 1849, the stores ship sailed once more for the Mediterranean on 8 March, carrying the United States consul to Tripoli. After disembarking her passenger and delivering stores to the ships of the American squadron in that ancient sea, Suppl~g returned home, via Brazil; arrived back at Norfolk on 4 September 1849; and was laid up there a week later.
Reactivated on 22 November 1849, the ship sailed early in January 1850 and proceeded around Cape Horn to the California coast which was overflowing with "49ers" who had been drawn there by word of a gold strike at Sutter's Mill Two years later, she returned to New York to prepare for service in the West India Squadron. While in the Far East, she
served as the stores ship which supplied Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan. She entered Tokyo Bay on 8 July 1853. After serving on the China coast, the ship returned to New York in February 1855.
Supply's next assignment was perhaps the most unusual duty of her career. The ship, commanded by Lt. David Dixon Porter who would win fame in the Civil War, departed New York on 4 June 1855 and headed for the Mediterranean to obtain camels to be returned to the United States. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, who was extremely interested in developing the territory recently acquired by the United States during its war with Mexico, had arranged for the expedition to obtain the animals for experimental use by the Army on the American desert west of the Rockies.
The ship reached Smyrna on 30 January 1856, loaded 21 camels, and sailed on 15 February for the Gulf of Mexico. Porter delivered the animals to Indianola, Tex., in May. The ship had reached the halfway point on this curious mission for she was soon on her way back to the Levant for another load of camels which she transferred to Suwance in the Mississippi early in February 1857.
Next in her string of interesting assignments came service in the special squadron assembled and sent to South American waters to support diplomatic efforts to settle differences between the United States and Paraguay which resulted from the firing upon USS Water Witch. Supply arrived with the fleet off Asuncion on 25 January 1859 and stood by during negotiations which resulted in an apology and an indemnity which settled the affair.
A cruise on the Africa Station and duty on the Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico followed.
January 1861 found the ship in Pensacola Harbor and, on tie 16th, she sailed north with the families and possessions of the officers and men who had been stationed there and arrived at New York on 4 February.
The ship sailed south on 15 March carrying Army troops and marines. She anchored in Pensacola harbor on 7 April and, four days later, landed them at night to reenforce Ft. Pickens.
Throughout the Civil War, Supply supported the blockading squadrons on the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of Mexico. She took her sole prize of the conflict on 29 January 1862 when she captured schooner Stephen Hart carrying arms and ammunition south of Sarasota, Fla. Her services, although undramatic, enabled many warships to remain on station in the blockade and thus helped substantially to shorten the war.
After the end of hostilities, Supply served in the Brazil Squadron in 1866, and in the Far East in 1867 and 1868. After being laid up from 27 June 1868 to 6 November 1869, the ship sailed for Europe but soon returned and was decommissioned at New York on 7 July 1870.
On 21 February 1871, she was recommissioned and sailed eastward across the Atlantic carrying supplies for the citizens of France left destitute by the Franco Prussian War. In the spring of 1872, the ship carried a relief crew to Lancaster in the South Atlantic and, the following year, transported the American exhibits to Austria for the Vienna Exposition. Following two years in ordinary at New York, the ship returned to Europe to bring back the exhibits from Vienna. Later that year, she made a training cruise with boys from New York. Then, in 1877, she served as a tender to training ship Minnesota.
In 1878, she sailed to Europe with the American exhibits for the Paris Exposition and brought them home in March 1879. The ship was decommissioned at New York on 23 April and was towed to Philadelphia where she was laid up until she was sold on 3 May 1884 to M. H. Gregory of Great Neck, L.I.
History of Logistics, Distribution and Supply Chain Management
Today, logistics and distribution is a rather complicated and advanced process but it began years ago in a less advanced form. We thought these quick facts and historical background would provide for an interesting read:
Logistics refers the movement of products or services to a designated location at an agreed upon time, cost and condition. Ancient Roman and Greek wars are the basis for today’s logistics systems. Rome developed a highly efficient logistic system to supply its legions. Military officers called “logistikas” were responsible for ensuring the supply and allocation of resources, so that soldiers could move forward efficiently.
During the Middle Ages elaborate supply systems, roads and warehouses were used. Forts and castles became storage depots supported by the economy of the surrounding countryside. During the Industrial Revolution, logistics advanced greatly with the addition of railways and ships.
World War I further increased industrial capabilities. The internal-combustion engine gave rise to widespread use of motor transport. World War II was characterized by dramatic advances in transportation and communication. U.S. shipyards performed at an unprecedented pace to expand the merchant marine (a fleet of U.S. civilian-owned merchant vessels that engage in commerce or transportation of goods and services in and out of the navigable waters of the United States).
After World War II, logistics moved from warfare to business. Physical distribution of products began with a focus on outbound activity. Filling orders, distribution of products, storage and warehousing, production planning and customer service are presently important aspects of the logistics process.
An entire industry was born from what started as a way to get products from point A to point B. Many companies now rely on outsourcing for some or all of their supply chain management activities, resulting in the development of third party logistics companies for efficient transport and tracking of goods.
Hopkins has been a part of the history of logistics for more than 20 years. Contact Hopkins Distribution to discuss your specific distribution needs today!
History of Supply I - History
Lower Matecumbe Key was a favorite location for fresh water from almost the beginning of historic times. In her writings, Hester Perrine wrote of a 1840 trip with her father, Dr. Henry Perrine, to a large fresh water hole that she named "The Fairy Grotto." There were fresh water springs in the Miami area. Dr. Jacob Motte reported in 1838: "We were fortunate in hitting upon this spot, for there we found a remarkable spring of fresh water." This could have been what became known as the "Devil's Punch Bowl."
In 1852 a British patent, known as the de Normandy Patent, was granted for a sea water desalination system. It used as a thermal driving force. Three 7,000 a day units were purchased in 1861 by the U.S. One was installed at Fort Taylor, Key West and two at Fort Jefferson.
Considering that Florida became a state in 1845, in these early Key West was the only populated center in the Keys. It being on Miami oolite as the Lower Keys are, a very limited quantity of fresh water could be obtained however, the collection of rain water from roofs into cisterns were the only practical way to provide sufficient quantity for sustained human existence.
In the Keys it would be difficult for the average household today to exist on water collected from roofs. The average rainfall is about 36 inches a year which would produce 3,000 cubic feet of water if collected from a 1,000 square foot roof. 3,000 cubic feet of water a year is about 22,200 gallons. Worldwide the average two occupant house uses 82 gallons per day, or 29,930 gallons a year therefore, would be deficient of 7,730 gallons if 100 percent perfect, none loss to evaporation, leakage or cistern cleaning.
Nevertheless, Key West had enough businesses and government buildings to collect an adequate supply of water until growth exceeded the cistern supply capability. Many creative methods were used to sustain the population growth of the late 1800s including a lot of sharing and use of salt water for flushing toilets and fire systems.
Fresh water, both for human consumption and the making of concrete, was a problem for Henry Flagler in the construction of the Overseas Railway from 1905 to 1912. The following are excerpts from news articles found in the Flagler Museum in Palm Beach, Florida: February 20, 1906 - "An attempt will be made to secure artesian wells on the Keys along the line of the Key West Extension." July 7, 1906 - "The large fresh water tank at Big Pine Key has been completed. It has the capacity of 100,000 gallons and a 20-horsepower gasoline engine is being used for pumping purposes." February 15, 1907 “It is now said that the F.E.C. Railway will abandon the idea of laying a pipe line for conveying water to various points in the Keys as far as Key West, instead it will carry it in tank cars from Manatee Creek, where a pumping station has been in operation for some time. The supply of water at this point is unlimited, and the tank car method is more practical than the pipe line.” Manatee Creek is about at mile marker 113. October 9, 1908 - "The Extension [fresh water] well on Key Vaca [Marathon], which has been in charge of Mr. Ed Sheran, has finally been abandoned after reaching a depth of 680 feet." September 11, 1909 - "The Extension well at Indian Key water station is now down to 90 feet. The Messrs. Walker, who have charge of putting down this well are determined to make a record." In practice, except for Big Pine Key, water had to be stored in large tanks and transported by ship, barge or rail car from the mainland.
In summary, the F.E.C. made many attempts to find fresh water however the major wells were at Indian Key, Key Vaca, Knight's Key, Big Pine Key and Key West. All were relatively shallow, less than 700 feet, except the Key Vaca well mentioned above. Eventually, that well went down to 2,322 feet. Only the Big Pine Key surface collection system produced a useable quantity of fresh water. The only solution was to haul water in using tank cars - drilling was not feasible.
At a special session of the Florida Legislature in October 1925, Monroe County was empowered to issue bonds or grant franchises for a water pipeline from Key West to the mainland. The Florida Land Boom probably influenced this decision.
According to the "Key Largo City News" (A Miami real estate news journal) dated February 26, 1926 portions excerpted, "WATER SUPPLY PROBLEM MET SAYS KETCHEM - The following interview was given by assemblyman Charles Ketchum of Key West - . Hon. John W. Martin, Governor of Florida, call an extraordinary session of the Florida Legislature for the purpose of enacting into law a measure called 'The Monroe County Special Water District,' whereby a complete fresh water system, covering all the Florida Keys from Florida City to Key West, a distance of 128 miles, could be made possible. The bill passed both branches of the Legislature. "
A Trustees and Board of Water Commissioners were appointed and various companies investigated the possibilities. The unforeseen collapse of the Florida Land Boom after the hurricane of 1926, the stock market crash of 1929 and the depression of 1933 doomed this project. To my knowledge, nothing ever became of the studies and the saga continued.
The early settlers and those prior to 1942 caught rainwater and stored it in large containers called cisterns. Sometimes the house was built on top of the cistern and other times it was a storage tank alongside the house. Some even elevated the tank so it could gravity feed into the house.
This is what Captain Cliff Carpenter of Tavernier did. He had a circular tank ten feet across and ten feet high with a two by four supported roof and the ends covered with screen to keep out the vermin. About twice a year he would pour in about half of a condensed milk can of kerosene to put a thin film of oil on top of the water. This shut off the oxygen supply to organisms trying to breed in the water.
Cliff also had a shallow-brackish water well with a hand pitcher pump to manually fill the toilet and this saved precious fresh water. Later, he put in a second tank to store the brackish water. Variations of this scenario were repeated throughout the Keys. We are presenty (2014) restoring the last known wooden brackish water cistern at the Beauregard Albury house in the center lane of US-1 at MM 92.5. The wooden cistern is seven feet in diameter and sets on a concrete pier along side the usual concrete water off-the-roof cistern.
There were years when it was a long time between rains. In Tavernier H. S. McKenzie put in a storage tank behind the drug store (Copper Kettle restaurant in 1998) and hauled water from Homestead. He had a tanker truck that could haul 1,000 gallons. Henry Flagler had hauled in millions of gallons of water for his railroad crews and concrete. The railroad also hauled large tank cars of water when needed. It should be pointed out that today there are still homes in the Keys that use only cisterns for fresh water.
Not much is known of a freshwater desalination plant that was built on the lower portion of Lower Matecumbe Key. It was part of Camp 3 for the World War 1 veterans building the proposed bridge to span the highway water gap between Lower Matecumbe and Grassy Key. Jimmy Woods of Islamorada was a construction worker on the plant and relates how all testing was completed on Friday, August 31, 1935. Turnover and acceptance to the government was to take place on Tuesday after the three-day Labor Day weekend. On Monday, September 2, 1935, the hurricane struck and annihilated the camp. Strangely, the water towers withstood the wind and water of the 1935 hurricane. The two tanks are clearly visible in photos before and after the hurricane.
With the loss of the railroad because of the 1935 hurricane, the large quantities of fresh water transported by huge railroad tank cars also ceased. In 1937 the Florida Legislature enacted House Bill No. 1683 to create the Florida Keys Aqueduct Commission (FKAC). Governor Fred Cone signed the bill into law on June 11, 1937. Earl Adams was chosen as chairman at the first meeting on March 23, 1938. The following month, L. L. Lee and associates were selected to study and survey the project. The estimate was $2,500,000.
The Navy Base in Key West was reopened on November 1, 1939 and the early estimate of government use of water was 75,000 gallons a day. The existing Navy's desalination plant produced only 35,000 gallons a day.
The Navy decided to build a pipeline and Congress appropriated the money with the proviso that it be in conjunction with the State of Florida. This was done with a formal agreement between the Navy and the FKAC on March 29, 1941 with the FKAC paying one third of the cost. In September 1941 a resolution authorized the First National Bank of Miami to issue $1,750,000 of FKAC Water Revenue Bonds. A pipeline from the mainland had been envisioned for decades and the two-thirds federal financing made it a reality.
The U.S. Navy acquired 353 acres in Florida City on August 18, 1941 for a well site. After many surveys, on April 15, 1942, the Fairbanks Morse and Company started work on two 500-horse-power pumps for $44,862.35. The Navy's first plan was for a 12-inch pipeline but when the water plant indicated it could handle more, the pipe size was changed to 18-inch.
In the meanwhile, on November 28, 1941, the William Brothers Corporation had begun drilling three 10-inch wells and laying 128 miles of 18-inch pipe from the Florida City site to Key West for $1,719,017.95. Alonzo Cothron did much of the trenching. The pipe was placed under water at 13 of the channel crossings. The pipe was of ductile steel, wrapped with a protective (later fiber glass) and painter silver. In case of an leak, there were isolation valves that could be closed both sides of the leak, emergency crews repair the leak, rewrap and repaint.
This being 1941, highway travel was still via the Card Sound road. The pipeline followed the Flagler railway route directly across the Everglades. The following February, a new highway by-passing of the existing Card Sound State Road 4A began along the same route. This was shorter in distance. For the first time federal highway funds were used for Overseas Highway construction signaling the change of highway designation to U.S. 1.
While neither of these projects compared with Flagler's original construction of the Overseas Railway, they were still quite a feat. The original pipeline held about 10 million gallons of water along its path and water took about six days to reach Key West, depending on the rate of flow. The first water to reach Key West through the new pipeline was on September 22, 1942. Later, we will read of public electricity on December 1, 1942. Then the improved and shortened Highway traffic began in 1944.
The Florida City water was too hard and caused damage to pipes. In 1944, a filtration and water treatment plant was added to the Florida City facility. Usage was also increasing so a pressure booster pump was recommended and installed in Marathon. The Charles Toppino and Sons Company installed the booster plant and the Gabel Construction Company installed the treatment plant, which are still in use today. Usage charts reveal the Upper Keys water consumption made a dynamic increase after World War II. Alonzo Cothron of Matecumbe was appointed to the board in 1949 and elected chairman of FKAC on June 5, 1952. Basically, the FKAC purchased excess water from the Navy and sold it to the community. Soon the demand exceeded the capability and three booster pumps were installed, one at Cross Key, Long Key and Ramrod Key. The Navy owned all the facilities.
This isn't the end, as those who lived here during the 18-inch pipe days can well remember. Because of increased use even with the three booster pumps, there was practically no water pressure on weekends especially those with two-story homes. This brought growth in the Keys almost to a standstill. In a special bond election on the behalf of the FLA District on October 27, 1953 the citizens rejected a 14-million dollar bond issue by a margin of 1965 - 379. The bond supposedly for a water pipeline to Florida City. Legislation was created to elect five commissioners to a Florida Keys Aqueduct Commission (FKAC) in 1953. An election on February 23, 1954 elected Paul Mesa. Vance Stirrup, William Freeman, Alonzo Cothron and Harry Baker as commissioners in a very small turnout election - 2008 voters. Since funds were denied, the commissioners were without salaries and funds. The Navy produced all the water and services and the aqueduct commission was providing citizens with the surplus water from the Navy.
Hurricane Donna in 1960 caused the first major outage of the pipeline with multiple breaks. The Navy began studies for a desalination plant in 1964 and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation was awarded the contract to build the plant on Stock Island on March 16, 1966. It opened on June 7, 1967 averaging 2.62 million gallons during a 24-hour test period. In 1971 the Stock Island water plant had to close for 12 days for maintenance. The plant had to close again in 1979 and in the meantime the Florida City plant broke down in 1976. It was quickly repaired, but failed 40 times in the next few months. The next year the pipe sprang a large leak at the very same time that the supplementary desalination plant was out of operation.
On July 1, 1976 the FKAC was disbanded and the Navy transferred all the land, buildings, wells, pipeline and equipment to the newly established Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority (FKAA). The sale price was - $7 million. According to Florida Law 76-441 as amended, the FKAA is an autonomous public body corporate and politic and has perpetual existence. In 1976 its directors were elected. Today they are appointed by the governor.
There was not enough money to repair the Stock Island plant completely. Monroe County declared a state of emergency and imposed water rationing. The Aqueduct Authority cut the water pressure and requested the governor to issue a tourist advisory. You can imagine how that was received! More water was necessary.
The solution did not come easily, as it would be expensive. The Aqueduct Commission as early as 1975 had asked for a Farmers Home Administration (FMHA) loan of $45 million. Investors had to be found for interim funds, because the FMHA monies would not be available until the job was completed. By the time project funding could be approved, all the construction bids had expired and new bids were higher. As we know today, it was finally resolved, but in fairness, the Aqueduct Authority really had to burn the candle at both ends.
The five FKAA commissioners elected on population percentages apparently were having troubles with confidence of the FMHA because of various actions. State personnel sat in the local board meetings and reported back to Governor Graham. The governor's resolution was to replace the elected FKAA directors with selected members of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). After the 36-inch pipeline was installed, the SFWMD members were gradually phased out and governor appointed the directors from Monroe County. The elected directors never returned to the board.
Gov. Bob Graham broke ground to start work in 1980 for a 36-inch water line to Tavernier, a 30-inch line to Marathon and a 24-inch line to Upper Sugarloaf Key. Between there and Key West, there remained places where the old 18-inch line was in use until 1998. The work was done with a $63,225,000 Farmers Home Administration bond issue and completed in 1982.
The system served the Keys well during Hurricanes Andrew, Georges, Mitch and Irene with no system outages. Taking off the shelf a management hat that never had been used, the FKAA will begin management of wastewater treatment. The 1998 legislature clearly designated the FKAA as the wastewater authority for unincorporated Florida Keys in Monroe County. Its first operation appeared to have been a central sewer system for Key Largo although it is rural in nature known as the Key Largo Wastewater Treatment District (KLWTD).
In 1999 a Request for Proposals (RFP) was sent out and there were four respondents. The proposals were evaluated by a Technical Evaluation Panel (TEP) of county, state and federal personnel. The Ogden Wastewater Systems (OWS) were selected. In early 2000 Monroe County authorized contract negotiations with OWS to begin. Somewhere along the line, it was alleged that the TEP had violated the Florida Government in the Sunshine law.
The KLWTD had about 15,000 residents with about 13,000 Equivalent Dwelling Units (EDU). An EDU is an entity that uses an average of 167 gallons of water a day. The Ogden contract price was $59 million and with a total project cost of about $83 million.
The FKAA has spent about $2 million on a half dozen projects throughout the county in the planning stages. The KLWTD was delayed awaiting resolution of an alleged Florida Sunshine Law violation therefore, the contract was on hold. Wastewater projects for Marathon, Conch Key and Bay Point remained in planning.
In 2001 the courts ruled that indeed there was a Sunshine Law violation and the Ogden contract was nullified. Monroe County requested State Representative Sorensen to file legislation for an independent district to oversee wastewater functions for the Island of Key Largo, minus Ocean Reef Club.
The legislation passed, Governor Bush signed House Bill 471 in May 2002 which specified the election of a five member governing board for the Key Largo Wastewater Treatment District. Accompanying legislation amended the FKAA Florida Law 76-441 removing Key Largo from its jurisdiction.
In November 2002 five Key Largo wastewater commissioners were elected.
The problem of sufficient potable water for another 20 years for future Monroe County is being addressed in 2010. It appears that the rather large cost to distribute reclaimed treated wastewater continues to prohibit its use as it is not cost effective except in limited cases. The solution is a $38 million desalination plant at its 360-acre Florida City pumping site. The new desal plant will pump brackish water from a 1,700 foot well from the Floridian Aquifer where the normal freshwater wells pump from 80-wells into the Biscayne Aquifer. The FKAA is limited to withdrawing 17.8 million gallons a day from the Biscayne Aquifer. Existing desal plants at Stock Island and Marathon can process an additional 3 millions gallons a day
As for wastewater treatment the state mandated 2010 deadline has been extended to 2015.
The current stage in the evolution of outsourcing is the development of strategic partnerships. Until recently it had been axiomatic that no organization would outsource core competencies, those functions that give the company a strategic advantage or make it unique. Often a core competency is also defined as any function that gets close to customers. In the 1990s, outsourcing some core functions may be good strategy, not anathema. For example, some organizations outsource customer service, precisely because it is so important.
Eastman Kodak’s decision to outsource the information technology systems that undergird its business was considered revolutionary in 1989, but it was actually the result of rethinking what their business was about. They were quickly followed by dozens of major corporations whose managers had determined it was not necessary to own the technology to get access to information they needed. The focus today is less on ownership and more on developing strategic partnerships to bring about enhanced results. Consequently, organizations are likely to select outsourcing more on the basis of who can deliver more effective results for a specific function than on whether the function is core or commodity.
HISTORY OF WOOL
Humans have been washing, weaving, and wearing wool since 10,000 BCE.
There are more than 1,000 sheep breeds in the world. Breeds like the Merino or Rambouillet produce fine wools used mainly for apparel. Breeds like Romney or Scottish Blackface produce thicker wools used generally for
interiors such as interior textiles, décor and carpets.
Merino sheep originated in Spain. In 1789 King Charles IV of Spain gave six Merino sheep as a gift to the Dutch government. These sheep found their way to South Africa, and then were sold to British army officer, politician, and entrepreneur John Macarthur, who took them to Australia.
Today Australia produces 80% of the Merino wool used in luxury fashion and suiting around the world.
Wool currently accounts for 1.1% of the world’s global fibre market. As of 2018 around 1.1 billion sheep produced just over 2 million kilograms of raw wool for home and clothing textiles.
Argentina, New Zealand, South Africa, the United States and Uruguay are also leading producers of the fine wool used in apparel.
Wool’s inherent properties lend itself to a perfect fit in performance, active and sportswear.
Wool goes far beyond fashion. It can also be used to produce carpets, other interior textiles such as bedding, upholstery and insulation, and protective garments worn by firefighters and soldiers.
No one really knows who created UPS, when it was created, and where it was created. There are no definitive answers to that question. In fact, industry insiders say that no one person can claim to have created a UPS device. A number of scientists had theories and conducted research on the subject. The idea had existed in the community for quite some time before it was given form.
The first UPS was patented by a scientist named John Hanley, only it wasn’t called an Uninterruptible Power Supply at the time. Hanley gave the device the lofty name of Apparatus for Maintaining an Unfailing and Uninterrupted Supply of Electrical Energy. We think that’s an apt definition of UPS but a rather cumbersome name, but the acronym would’ve been cheeky and hilarious. Imagine calling a UPS an AMUUSEE-it would be rather amusing.
Modern UPSs are a far cry from the devices that existed back in the day. The very first UPSs consisted of a flywheel that would provide short bursts of backup power. This rotary system was inefficient and wouldn’t have been able to support modern servers and databanks. After all, the rotary UPS only provided backup. It didn’t offer much surge protection.
Sir James Steuart
Locke did not actually use the term "supply and demand," however. Its first appearance in print came in 1767, with Sir James Steuart's Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy. When Steuart wrote his treatise on political economy, one of his main concerns was the impact of supply and demand on laborers. Steuart noted that when supply levels were higher than demand, prices were significantly reduced, lowering the profits realized by merchants. When merchants made less money, they could not afford to pay workers, resulting in high unemployment.
Discovered and distributed breakthrough antibiotic, streptomycin
Tuberculosis was historically a leading cause of death in the U.S. In 1943, Dr. Selman Waksman and Albert Schatz discovered streptomycin, the first effective treatment for the disease. Merck had supported Dr. Waksman's research lab and held the new drug's patent rights. Once its significant health benefits were recognized, Merck relinquished its exclusive patent on the antibiotic to ensure maximum patient access.
By 1950, tuberculosis-related deaths in the U.S. fell by nearly 50 percent.
Merck entered the animal health market with sulfaquinoxaline
After years of extensive testing, Merck brought S.Q. (sulfaquinoxaline) to market. The product, used to prevent coccidiosis, a parasitic poultry disease, formally ushered Merck into the field of animal health.
Cortisone first commercially synthesized
Dr. Lewis Sarett, a researcher at Merck Research Laboratory in Rahway, developed CORTONE (cortisone). The drug was used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever and other related chronic diseases which were often fatal and for which there was no known effective treatment.
Medicine is for the people
In a defining moment for the company, George W. Merck gave a talk at the Medical College of Virginia at Richmond, during which he made a famous statement about how the medical and pharmaceutical community could be successful:
"We try to remember that medicine is for the patient. We try never to forget that medicine is for the people. It is not for the profits. The profits follow, and if we have remembered that, they have never failed to appear."
This philosophy is embraced by our leaders and employees to this day.
Merck merged with Sharp & Dohme
The merger brought together Merck's extensive chemical research and manufacturing facilities with Sharp & Dohme's pharmaceutical development, marketing expertise and international presence. Sharp & Dohme's West Point, Pennsylvania facilities were included in the merger.
The Merck Foundation was created
Merck established the Merck Company Foundation, a nonprofit corporation dedicated to charitable giving, with an initial contribution of $500,000. To date, the Merck Foundation has contributed hundreds of millions of dollars to nonprofit organizations.
DIURIL launched to treat high blood pressure
The release of DIURL (chlorothiazide) signaled the company's emergence as a leading cardiovascular company. Since the introduction of DIURIL, we have been at the forefront of developing new treatments to fight high blood pressure and heart disease. The “Diuril Man,” a transparent plastic figurine showing the heart, lungs, kidneys, ureters and bladder, helped Merck show physicians the value of the breakthrough product.
William Edwards Deming
W. Edwards Deming was an American who lived from October 14, 1900 to December 20, 1993. Deming was a management consultant, statistician, engineer, author, lecturer, and professor.
In the 1927, Deming met Walter A. Shewhart. Deming was impressed with Shewhart's concepts of statistical process control. Deming studied Shewhart's work on statistical control, control charts, and Shewhart's straight-line process. Shewhart's concept of common causes of variation (known, historic, having to do with the process, and quantifiable) and special causes of variation (statistical variations that are unknown/haven't happened before, abnormal, and unquantifiable) directly led to Deming's theory of management. Deming recognized that Shewhart's concepts and processes could be applied to both manufacturing processes and the processes that manage companies.
Deming edited a four part series of lectures that Shewhart gave in 1937. These lectures were published in a 1939 book called, Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality Control.
In the 1930s in the US, Deming worked with the US Census Bureau to help develop the sampling techniques they used in 1940 and still today.
In 1943, Deming educated engineers and additional people (in support of war efforts) his first course on fundamental applied statistics. Then Deming began a two year teaching program, teaching the statistics training program at Stanford. Deming.org says that here he educated close to 2000 people on the PDSA Cycle and the Shewhart Cycle for Learning and Improvement.
In 1946, Deming was working as a private consultant. After World War II, the Economic and Scientific Section of the War Department sent Deming to Japan so he could study agricultural production problems and other connected issues occurring in the nation, damaged by the war.
In 1947, Deming went to Japan to help the statisticians of Japan evaluate nutrition issues and housing troubles and to help in the early planning of Japan's 1951 census. While there, the Japanese Statistical Society (JSS) deemed him an honorary member.
In 1950, the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) had studied Shewhart's cycle and wanted an expert to teach them more on the subject. JUSE members thus sought out Deming to teach them about statistical control.
Deming went on, in 1950, to teach people about concepts of quality and statistical process control (SPC). In Japan, Deming taught hundreds of top management industrialists, scholars, engineers, and managers. Deming's main teaching to executives was that increased quality decreases expenditures and increases productivity and market share. Multiple manufacturers in Japan followed Deming's techniques to achieve new levels of productivity and quality. A new international demand for products coming from Japan arose due to their decreased cost and increased quality. In the 1950s, from the processes based on what Deming taught, Japan was on the path to becoming the second largest economy in the world. Deming can be credited for bringing the idea of continuous improvement to Japan.
In 1960, The Emperor of Japan gave an award to Deming for pioneering, introducing, and implementing Kaizen in Japan. The award was called the "2nd Order medal of the Sacred Treasure."
Training Within Industry (TWI)
From 1940 through 1945, Training Within Industry was a program that was run within a United States government agency, the War Manpower Commission. This program was in place as an emergency service in the US during World War II. The United States Government War Production Board created TWI.
From the industry, experts were drafted to develop techniques to rapidly speed up war materials production. The program was needed to quickly train new unskilled workers in the war production workforce. These new workers were needed to replace the skilled workforce (that were producing war materials) that was now heading off to war.
The TWI programs consisted of basic training sessions. They were split up into 4 programs that were each 10 hours long.
The TWI program was developed from Charles R. Allen's 4 step method of training new workers: Show, Tell, Do, Check. Charles R. Allen was a Massachusetts vocational teacher. In 1917, during World War I, Charles was appointed to head a program to increase trained workers for the ship building industry 10-fold. In 1919, he published his work in his book titled, "The Instructor, The Man and The Job."
The 4 TWI training programs were:
- Job Instruction (JI): This was a course to teach experienced workers, managers, and supervisors to quickly train untrained employees. Trainers were shown to take jobs and separate them into small-defined steps, to demonstrate the steps while explaining the key steps and the reason for them, and then to closely watch the student demonstrate the procedure, coach them, and slowly end coaching as the student can do it without the trainer.
- Job Methods (JM): This was course to teach workers to meticulously evaluate (objectively) the efficiency of the job and to suggest logical improvements. If the worker came up with a inefficient task, they were charged with the task of coming up with a solution by getting rid of something, combining steps, rearranging, or simplifying steps. The worker must then present the idea to coworkers and their supervisor and try to gain approval.
- Job Relations (JR): This was a course to teach managers/supervisors to handle employees both effectively and in a fair manner.
- Program Development (PD): This was a session to teach trainers to help in the organization of solving issues with production through training.
After WWII, the Economic and Scientific Section (ESS) group was assigned to helping improve management skills in Japan. Part of their work was to properly teach the Training Within Industry programs, in Japan. To aid in their work, ESS introduced a TWI training film. This TWI training film taught Job Instruction (JI), Job Methods (JM), and Job Relations (JR).
The TWI training film was called "Improvement in 4 Steps." In Japanese, this translates to Kaizen eno Yon Dankai. Some see this as the formal introduction of Kaizen into Japan.
The TWI training was widely accepted in Japan as it and Deming's teachings developed into the foundation of the Kaizen culture in Japanese industry.
Toyota Motor Corporation
The Toyota Motor Corporation was one of the Japanese companies who harnessed the knowledge of Kaizen, the teachings of Deming and the TWI program.
In 1950, Toyota established using quality circles. Deming first described quality circles earlier that year. They are also known as quality control circles. A quality circle can be defined as groups of employees with the same job or a similar job who get together consistently to define, analyze, and offer solutions to issues related to their work. A manager normally heads the meeting. This manager will then bring the solutions of the group to higher management.
The use of quality circles and the TWI training programs helped lead to the development of the Toyota Production System (TPS).
The Toyota Production System is based on the philosophy of the total eradication of all waste, or "muda." The system utilizes Kaizen, Just-In-Time, and Jidoka.
Today, Toyota still uses TPS and dedicates time and energy to sharing the system with other industries. In the Toyota Production System Support Center there is more information on the ways Toyota supports the community.
The idea of continuous improvement and Kaizen were first brought to Japan after World War II. These ideas then returned to the West in the late 20th century through the publications and work of Masaaki Imai, Norman Bodek, and others who worked with or studied Lean and the Toyota Production System.
Imai was born in 1930 in Tokyo, Japan. He is a management consultant and author. He is known for working on Kaizen and quality management.
Masaaki Imai's 1986 book Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success was the first to introduce the idea of kaizen to the business communities of Europe and North America. The text was translated from Japanese into more than a dozen languages, and kaizen made its way around the globe.
Conclusion on the History of Credit Reporting
The credit reporting agencies have a surprisingly long and controversial history. From the 1800s to today, the consumer credit reporting industry has been plagued with bias, inaccuracies, and serious security issues.
While technological advancements have allowed the credit bureaus to expand and improve, and government regulation has been enacted to protect the rights of consumers, the system is still far from perfect.
Ultimately, the credit bureaus were built to serve lenders, not consumers, and that remains their primary purpose. We are reminded of this every time consumers are harmed by the incompetent or even outright malicious actions of the credit bureaus.
Have you been affected by a credit reporting scam or a security breach? Let us know in the comments, and please share this article if you liked it!