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Solving the enigma of Stonehenge - Part 2

Solving the enigma of Stonehenge - Part 2


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(Read Part 1 )Unbeknownst to many historians, antiquarians and archaeologists searching for solutions to Stonehenge’s mysteries, the centre star of Orion’s three belt stars is Alnilam. That star is located at a declination of -01 o 12’ 06.9”, meaning it is about one degree south of the celestial equator. The celestial equator is simply the earth’s equator projected out to the cosmic sphere surrounding Earth.

The celestial equator can be envisioned as an unseen circle rotating around Earth once every 24r hours. Every star in the sky appears to rotate around Earth once every 24 hours. Astronomers identify the location of each star relative to the position of the vernal equinox, which happens to be the centre of the Northern Cross. Looking at that location in the sky, Alnilam is to the right of the vernal equinox; it has a right ascension of 5 h 36 m 12.8 s. In other words if the length of the celestial equator measured in time is 24 hours, Alnilam is 5 hours, 36 minutes, 12.8 seconds to the right of the centre of the Northern Cross.

Here is where this gets really interesting. The brightest star in Taurus is Aldebaran. Its location is declination +16 o 30’ 33.49”, right ascension 4 h 35 m 55.24 s. Meanwhile, Sirius – the brightest star in the sky – is located at -16 o 42’ 58.15 , right ascension 6 h 45 m 8.92 s. Studying the numbers we find that the declination of Alnilam is only -0 o 12’ 24.26”, right ascension 0h 10m 30.72s from the centre point between Sirius and Aldebaran. In fact from the standpoint of naked eye astronomy Alnilam is at that centerpoint!

If the astronomy is causing you more confusion, here is the connection to Stonehenge. During the summer of 2013 I analyzed the spatial relationships of Neolithic monuments constructed within about 2 miles (3.3 km) of Stonehenge. In doing so it was found that scaled positions of the part of the night sky including the Northern Cross, Orion, Auriga, Taurus and Sirius plot such that long barrow Amesbury 42, the Heelstone at Stonehenge, the centre of Woodhenge, Coneybury Henge and the west end of the Greater Cursus match the map of stars. Plainly, the landscape of monuments constructed 1000 years before megaliths were placed at Stonehenge represents a map of the cosmic area where the spirit of each life comes from, and returns to.

But what of Stonehenge itself? There are four specific locations at Stonehenge each of which was the site of a megalith when the circles of stones were placed in about 2480 BC. The four stones are called the Station Stones. They formed the corners of a near-rectangular area surrounding the central portion of the monument. The Station Stones are numbered 91 through 94. Stone 91 is opposite of stone 92, and stone 92 is opposite of stone 94.

(Paul D. Burley copyright 2012)

Again, results of analysis conducted in 2013 shows that the Station Stone quadrilateral represents the portion of night sky between Aldebaran and Sirius. Stone 92 represents Aldebaran, and stone 94 represents Sirius. Where does Alnilam, centre star of Orion’s belt plot? At the centre of the monument. Emplacing Orion upon Earth at Stonehenge, the symbolism is clear. The monument represents the cosmos and Earth brought together to create life in spirit and body.

The surrounding landscape represents the source and place of return of the spirit. Just as the body upon death is returned to Earth, the spirit is released to return to the stars. The cycle of birth, life, death and re-birth continues without end, conforming to creation, destruction and re-creation of the universe itself.

In the end, what is peculiar about Stonehenge is not its architecture nor its purpose, but our inability until now to recognize what it represented for the people of Britain 4500 and more years ago. It is part of the cycle of life.

--------------------------------------

Paul D. Burley is the author of ‘Stonehenge: As Above, So Below’, published March 2014 by New Generation Publishing, London.

Featured image: Stonehenge. Photo source: April Holloway

By Paul Burley


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In 2001, the release of the feature film Enigma sparked great interest in the tweedy world of the boffins who broke Nazi Germany's secret wartime communications codes. But not all who watched Dougray Scott in the film's lead role realised that the title referred to a machine like a typewriter, which encrypted secret messages.

Fewer people still knew that this piece of spook hardware was invented by a German (based on an idea by a Dutchman), that information about it was leaked to the French, and that it was first reconstructed by a Pole, before it was offered to Britain's codebreakers as a way of deciphering German signals traffic during World War Two. As a result of the information gained through this device, it has been claimed, hostilities between Germany and the Allied forces were curtailed by two years.

The importance of signals intelligence became evident during World War One .

The importance of signals intelligence became evident during World War One, as staff in the British Admiralty's Room 40, under Captain Reginald 'Blinker' Hall, worked at intercepting German communications.

Among these, famously, was the Zimmermann telegram - a message from the German foreign minister to his ambassador in Mexico City informing him of plans to invade the United States. On being notified of these plans, officials in Washington were understandably perturbed, and hastened to effect the entry of the US into the war.


Solving Stonehenge : the new key to an ancient enigma

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Solving Stonehenge: The Key to an Ancient Enigma

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Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument without parallel. More than a phenomenal feat of engineering, it was built as an extrordinary expresssion of a now long-lost cosmology within a sacred site of such potency that it occupied the minds and labour of generations for over a millennium. The seach for a 'solution' to the enigma of the stones has a documented history which extends back over 850 years, and no doubt the monument's mystery was a source of fascination long before the first speculative ideas were written down.

Chapter 1
Landscape & Opportunity

The rolling chalk downland of Salisbury Plain is rich in prehistoric remains. An exceptional number of enclosures and burial places lie within just a few kilometres' radius of Stonehenge.¹ The earliest were the work of generations of people who lived in the Neolithic period, the 'New Stone Age' which emerged in Britain around 4000 BC, more than 1,000 years before Stonehenge was constructed. We might notice that this verdant and evocative landscape is not rich in natural resourves, and, until the army found a use for vast tracts of the surrounding open downs at the end of the 19th century, much of it was neglected, the home of solitary shepherds and the domain of the recently reintroduced great bustard (the heaviest flying bird in the world, a shy creature whose security depends on camouflage ideally suited to extensive grassland plains). There is little to indicate why this region was once home to one of the most dynamic prehistoric communities in Europe.


Review: Solving Stonehenge: The new key to an ancient enigma by Anthony Johnson

SECRET mathematical knowledge, ancient astronomies and mysterious monuments are an irresistible formula for hooking our interest in the past. Places like Stonehenge, as well as Mayan temples and the pyramids at Giza, provoke us to ask how these ancient structures were built, and why.

Are we seeking ancient versions of ourselves, or strangers who inhabited a world shaped by something other than modern science? Decades ago, the archaeologist Jacquetta Hawkes voiced this tension perfectly when she observed that “each age has the Stonehenge it deserves and desires”.

At first glance, Anthony Johnson’s Solving Stonehenge appears to be a throwback &hellip

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17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for

The Badlands Guardian. Google Earth.

2. The Badlands Guardian is NOT a deliberate hill formation depicting an alien chieftain who was worshiped by Canadian Natives

Discovered only in 2005 by Lynn Hickox via Google Earth, the Badlands Guardian &ndash also known Indian Head &ndash is a geomorphological feature situated near Medicine Hat in south-eastern Alberta, Canada. Viewable only from an aerial perspective, the Guardian resembles the appearance of a human wearing an Aboriginal headdress.

Within only a couple of years of the Guardian&rsquos discovery alien conspiracy theorists began making claims about the site, including that it depicted either an Indian Chief&rsquos face or that of a visiting alien leader, evidenced by the crown or headdress signifying a royal status. Suggesting the hills and mountains were deliberately crafted to construct the image, placing the erection at least hundreds of thousands if not millions of years ago, ancient astronaut theorists contend it was either created in veneration of the advanced alien visitors or upon the orders of a Native ruler seeking approval from extraterrestrial deities.

However despite such claims the Guardian is in fact a concave valley, not a convex protrusion as the image and theorists suggests, and a perfect example of the &ldquoHollow-Face illusion&rdquo in nature. Consequently we know that the &ldquostructure&rdquo is in fact a drainage feature formed by wind and water erosion on the malleable clay surface, occurring as a result of the arid badlands&rsquos characteristic intense rain showers over a period of at least several hundred million years, with the resultant image merely a happy coincidence.


Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by the Society for Science, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.

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Contents

The term "bluestone" in Britain is used in a loose sense to cover all of the "foreign," not intrinsic, stones at Stonehenge. It is a "convenience" label rather than a geological term, since at least 20 different rock types are represented. One of the most common rocks in the assemblage is known as Preseli Spotted Dolerite—a chemically altered igneous rock containing spots or clusters of secondary minerals replacing plagioclase feldspar. It is a medium grained dark and heavy rock, harder than granite. Preseli bluestone tools, such as axes, have been discovered elsewhere within the British Isles. Many of them appear to have been made in or near Stonehenge, since there are petrographic similarities with some of the spotted dolerites there. The bluestones at Stonehenge were placed there during the third phase of construction at Stonehenge around 2300 BC. [1] It is assumed that there were about 80 of them originally, but this has never been proven since only 43 remain. The stones are estimated to weigh between 2 and 4 tons each. The majority of them are believed to have been brought from the Preseli Hills, about 250 kilometres (150 miles) away in Wales, either through glaciation (glacial erratic theory) or through humans organizing their transportation.

Glacial erratic theory Edit

A summary of the major aspects of the Stonehenge "bluestone conundrum" was published in 2008. [2] In the same year a book devoted specifically to the problem of bluestone provenance and transport concluded that the Stonehenge bluestones are essentially an ill-sorted assemblage of glacial erratics. [3] Further research into the origin of the bluestones was published in 2012. [4] If a glacier transported the stones, then it must have been the Irish Sea Glacier. [5] In support of the glacial erratic theory, researchers reporting in 2015 found no firm evidence of quarrying at Rhosyfelin in the Preselis. [6] However, in such event, one might expect to find other bluestone boulders or slabs near the Stonehenge site, but no such bluestones (apart from fragments) have been found. [7]

Human transport theory Edit

The archaeological find of the Boscombe Bowmen has been cited in support of the human transport theory. Preseli Bluestone dolerite axe heads have been found around the Preseli Hills as well, indicating that there was a population who knew how to work with the stones, [8] In 2015, researchers reported they had confirmed the Preseli Spotted Dolerite stones at Stonehenge came from two Neolithic quarries at Carn Goedog and Craig Rhos-y-felin in the Preseli Hills. Using radiocarbon dating, researchers dated the quarry activities to around 3400 BC for Craig Rhos-y-felin and 3200 BC for Carn Goedog. Project director Mike Parker Pearson of the UCL Institute of Archaeology noted the finding was "intriguing because the bluestones didn't get put up at Stonehenge until around 2900 BC… It could have taken those Neolithic stone-draggers nearly 500 years to get them to Stonehenge, but that's pretty improbable in my view. It's more likely that the stones were first used in a local monument, somewhere near the quarries, that was then dismantled and dragged off to Wiltshire." [9] In 2018 two of the quarries – Carn Goedog and Craig Rhos-y-felin – underwent more excavation to reveal evidence of megalith quarrying around 3000 BC. If true, this shortens the period between excavation and transportation to the Stonehenge site. [10]

There are three distinct building materials called "bluestone" in Australia.

Victoria Edit

In Victoria, what is known as bluestone is a basalt or olivine basalt. It was one of the favoured building materials during the Victorian Gold Rush period of the 1850s. In Melbourne it was extracted from quarries throughout the inner northern suburbs, such as Clifton Hill, Brunswick and Coburg, where the quarry used to source the stone for Pentridge Prison is now Coburg Lake. [11] [12] Bluestone was also sourced in many other regions of the Victorian volcanic plains, and used in towns and cities of central and western regions, including Ballarat, Geelong, Kyneton, Port Fairy and Portland. It is still quarried at a number of places around the state.

Bluestone is very hard and therefore difficult to work, so it was predominantly used for warehouses, miscellaneous walls, and the foundations of buildings. However, a number of significant bluestone buildings exist, including the Old Melbourne Gaol, Pentridge Prison, St Patrick's Cathedral, Victoria Barracks, Melbourne Grammar School, Deaf Children Australia and Victorian College for the Deaf, Vision Australia, the Goldsbrough Mort warehouses (Bourke Street) and the Timeball Tower at Williamstown, as well as St Mary's Basilica in Geelong. Some examples of other major structures that use bluestone include Princes Bridge, the adjacent Federation Wharf, and Hawthorn Bridge. Because of its distinctive qualities, post-modern Melbourne buildings have also made use of bluestone for nostalgic reasons. These include the Southgate complex and the promenade in Southbank, Victoria.

Bluestone was also used extensively as cobblestone, and for kerbs and gutters, many examples which still exist in some of Melbourne's smaller city lanes and 19th century inner-suburban lanes. Crushed bluestone aggregate, known as "blue metal" (or "bluemetal"), is still used extensively in Victoria as railway ballast, as road base, and in making concrete. Combined with bitumen, it is used as a road surfacing material.

South Australia Edit

In South Australia, the name bluestone is given to a form of slate which is much less durable than Victorian bluestone, but was valued for its decorative appearance. The interior of the stone is usually pale grey or beige in colour, but is given attractively coloured surfaces by ferric oxide and other minerals deposited in joints and bedding planes. The slate is laid in masonry with the mineralised surfaces exposed. Bluestone was most popular from about the 1850s to the 1920s, quarried in the Adelaide Hills at Dry Creek, O'Halloran Hill (formerly Tapley's Hill) and Glen Osmond, as well as a number of other places in rural areas. [13]

Tasmania Edit

In Tasmania, the name bluestone is given to dolerite (diabase), which is a dominant stone variety in the landscape, and used in a variety of building roles. [14]

Timaru bluestone (also known as Port Chalmers bluestone) is an attractive building material, used both historically and to the present. It is a grey basalt similar to Victorian bluestone, quarried near Timaru in the South Island. Bluestone from near Kokonga in Central Otago is also widely used, and is the main construction material (often with facing of Oamaru stone, a local compact limestone) in many of the notable historic buildings in the southern South Island, most of which were constructed during the financial boom following the Central Otago gold rush. Prominent structures to use this combination include Otago University Registry Building, Dunedin Law Courts, and Dunedin Railway Station. Similar construction using Timaru bluestone was used for Christchurch Arts Centre.

There are two distinct building materials called "bluestone" in the United States, one is also found in Canada.

Bluestone is quarried in western New Jersey, Pennsylvania and eastern New York. [15] It is also quarried in the Canadian Appalachians near Deer Lake in Western Newfoundland. [16] The Pennsylvania Bluestone Association has 105 members, the vast majority of them quarriers. [17] Bluestone from Pennsylvania and New York is sandstone defined as feldspathic greywacke. The sand-sized grains from which bluestone is constituted were deposited in the Catskill Delta during the Middle to Upper Devonian Period of the Paleozoic Era, approximately 370 to 345 million years ago. The Catskill Delta was created from runoff from the Acadian Mountains ("Ancestral Appalachians"). [18] This delta ran in a narrow band from southwest to northeast and today provides the bluestone quarried from the Catskill Mountains and Northeast Pennsylvania. The term "bluestone" is derived from a deep-blue-colored sandstone first found in Ulster County, New York. [19] It can, however, appear in many other hues, mostly shades of grays and browns. Bluestone quarrying is of particular value to the economy of Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. The Starrucca Viaduct, finished in 1848, is an example of Pennsylvania bluestone as a building material. [17]

The other, lesser known, type of American 'bluestone' is a blue-tinted limestone abundant in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. It is a limestone formed during the Ordovician Period approximately 450 to 500 million years ago, at the bottom of a relatively shallow ocean that covered what is today Rockingham County, Virginia. The limestone that accumulated there was darker in color than most other limestone deposits because it was in deeper waters exposed to less light. The darker blue color resulted in limestone from this region being dubbed bluestone and with two sequences measuring about 10,000 ft thick, it gives the area one of the largest limestone deposits in the world. [20] The stone eventually fades from a deep blue to a light grey after prolonged exposure to sun and rain. Given the abundance of the stone in the Rockingham County area, the first settlers used it as foundations and chimneys for their houses. When James Madison University was built, the local bluestone was used to construct the buildings because of its high quality and cultural heritage. [21]


Stonehenge : A New Understanding : Solving the Mysteries of the Greatest Stone Age Monument

Stonehenge stands as an enduring link to our prehistoric ancestors, yet the secrets it has guarded for thousands of years have long eluded us. Until now, the millions of enthusiasts who flock to the iconic site have made do with mere speculation--about Stonehenge's celestial significance, human sacrifice, and even aliens and druids. One would think that the numerous research expeditions at Stonehenge had left no stone unturned. Yet, before the Stonehenge Riverside Project--a hugely ambitious, seven-year dig by today's top archaeologists--all previous digs combined had only investigated a fraction of the monument, and many records from those earlier expeditions are either inaccurate or incomplete.

Stonehenge--A New Understanding rewrites the story. From 2003 to 2009, author Mike Parker Pearson led the Stonehenge Riverside Project, the most comprehensive excavation ever conducted around Stonehenge. The project unearthed a wealth of fresh evidence that had gone untouched since prehistory. Parker Pearson uses that evidence to present a paradigm-shifting theory of the true significance that Stonehenge held for its builders--and mines his field notes to give you a you-are-there view of the dirt, drama, and thrilling discoveries of this history-changing archaeological dig.


Watch the video: Ανακατασκευή παλαιού πέτρινου σπιτιού, διπλωμένη σε πηλό. Μέρος 3. Χαρακτηριστικά της τοιχοποιίας (May 2022).


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