Interesting

Bosporan Soldier

Bosporan Soldier


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Bosporan Soldier - History

ISBN: 83-85874-03-8
Description: hardback, dustjacket, 103 pp. (17,5x24,5cm), XXV plates
Condition: very good
Weight: 430g.

Mariusz Mielczarek, The Army of the Bosporan Kingdom, Studies on the History of the Ancient and Medieval Art of Warfare, Lodz 1999

The edge of the Greek world was the northern shore of the Pontus Euxenius and the impact of the Black Sea was evident in the political, economic and cultural features of Bosporan society. The author uses evidence gathered from Bosporan tomb paintings, funerary stelai, terracotta figurines and representations on coins to demonstrate the interaction particularly between the Scythians and the Greeks (but also the Sindians and Maeotians) in the context of their warfare traditions. The evolution of weapons used, and the organisation of the army, is evident from the artefacts discussed.

ABBREVIATIONS
INTRODUCTION
PART I
FROM THE BEGINNINGS OF PANTICAPAEUM TO THE END OF THE SPARTOCID DYNASTY
1. The Organization of the Army
2. Weapons
a. Offensive Weapons
b. Defensive Weapons
3. Military Campaigns a. The war over Theodosia b. The war of Paerisades I against the Scythians c. The war of succession following the death of Paerisades I: the battle of the That River
PART II
THE REIGN OF MITHRIDATES VI EUPATOR AND HIS SUCCESSORS. BOSPORANS IN THE ARMY OF THE KING OF PONTUS
PART III
FROM THE REIGN OF ASPURGUS TO THE END OF THE BOSPORAN KINGDOM
1. The Organization of the Army
a. Cavalry
b. Infantry
2. Weapons
a. Offensive Weapons
b. Defensive Weapons
3. Military Campaigns
CONCLUSION
PLATES


Bosporitai Logades (Bosporan Elite Skirmishers)

These men were hired and armed by the Bosporitai to serve as professional elite troops. Their defensive equipment is of superior quality, coupled by the weaponry of local traditions and the warrior ethos of the recruits, make these skirmishers an excellent versatile and shock unit. However alone these soldiers cannot deal with large numbers of cavalrymen in the open ground and are better employed as flanking or screening units, when not deployed as defenders of fortifications. Moreover loyalty and bravery from these men will be rewarded by land grants and citizenships, meaning that they are even more eager to come out victorious in engagements.

Historically around Lake Maiotis developed urban communities, connected to one another through trading and common political interests. These were mainly focused on keeping commercial monopolies and collaborate against local and nomadic tribes to ensure the protection of maritime hubs. From the 2nd century BC coin hoards, burials and epigraphy point towards a large hiring of foreign and mercenary troops by the Bosporan poleis. These men were professionals from the Hellenistic world or nomadic warriors enlisted and armed by the Bosporitai to serve as garrison and border units. Even later, during Pontic rule, federated and allied warriors were hired and paid by urban coinage produced for military purposes. The armament of these men was very much in touch with the latest Hellenistic developments in warfare and during the 1st century BC ancient authors even describe them as equipped in the "Roman manner". Contemporary finds of chainmail and later frescos in Bosporan burials seem to indicate indeed that this time of body armour had become common in the Kimmerios Bosporos. Corroborating these conclusions is also the drastic change in military equipment, which occurred from the second half of the 1st century AD, when rulers of Sauromatian origins took over the Bosporan urban communities and brought a much more nomadic oriented style of warfare.


Contents

The whole area was dotted with Greek cities: in the west, Panticapaeum (Kerch)—the most significant city in the region, Nymphaeum and Myrmekion on the east Phanagoria (the second city of the region), Kepoi, Hermonassa, Portus Sindicus and Gorgippia. [4]

These Greek colonies were originally settled by Milesians in the 7th and 6th centuries BC. Phanagoria (c. 540 BC) was a colony of Teos, and the foundation of Nymphaeum may have had a connection with Athens at least it appears to have been a member of the Delian League in the 5th century. [4]

The Bosporan Kingdom was centred around the Kerch Strait between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, known in antiquity as the Cimmerian Bosporus from where the kingdom's name derived.

Archaeanactidae dynasty Edit

According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (xii. 31) the region was governed between 480 and 438 BC by a line of kings called the Archaeanactidae, probably a ruling family, usurped by a tyrant called Spartocus (438–431 BC), who was a Thracian. [4]

Spartocid dynasty Edit

Spartocus founded a dynasty which seems to have endured until c. 110 BC, known as the Spartocids. The Spartocids left many inscriptions, indicating that the earliest members of the house ruled under the titles of archons of the Greek cities and kings of various minor native tribes, notably the Sindi (from central Crimea) and other branches of the Maeotae. Surviving material (texts, inscriptions and coins) do not supply enough information to reconstruct a complete chronology of kings of the region. [4]

Satyrus (431–387 BC), successor to Spartocus, established his rule over the whole region, adding Nymphaeum to his kingdom and besieging Theodosia, which was wealthy because, unlike other cities in the region, it had a port which was free of ice throughout the year, allowing it to trade grain with the rest of the Greek world, even in winter. Satyrus' son Leucon (387–347 BC) eventually took the city. He was succeeded jointly by his two sons, Spartocus II, and Paerisades Spartocus died in 342 BC, allowing Paerisades to reign alone until 310 BC. [4] After Paerisades' death, a war of succession between his sons Satyrus and Eumelus was fought. Satyrus defeated his younger brother Eumelus at the Battle of the River Thatis in 310 BC but was then killed in battle, giving Eumelus the throne. [5]

Eumelus' successor was Spartocus III (303–283 BC) and after him Paerisades II. Succeeding princes repeated the family names, so it is impossible to assign them a definite order. The last of them, however, Paerisades V, unable to make headway against increasingly violent attacks from nomadic tribes in the area, called in the help of Diophantus, general of King Mithridates VI of Pontus, leaving him his kingdom. Paerisades was killed by a Scythian named Saumacus who led a rebellion against him. [4]

The house of Spartocus was well known as a line of enlightened and wise princes although Greek opinion could not deny that they were, strictly speaking, tyrants, they are always described as dynasts. They maintained close relations with Athens, their best customer for the Bosporan grain exports: Leucon I of Bosporus created privileges for Athenian ships at Bosporan ports. The Attic orators make numerous references to this. In return the Athenians granted Leucon Athenian citizenship and made decrees in honour of him and his sons. [4]

Mithridates VI Edit

After his defeat by Roman General Pompey in 66 BC, King Mithridates VI of Pontus fled with a small army from Colchis (modern Georgia) over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans. His eldest living son, Machares, regent of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father, so Mithridates had Machares killed, acquiring the throne for himself. Mithridates then ordered the conscriptions and preparations for war. In 63 BC, Pharnaces, the youngest son of Mithridates, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates's Pontic army. Mithridates VI withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide. Pompey buried Mithridates VI in a rock-cut tomb in either Sinope or Amasia, [6] the capital of the Kingdom of Pontus.

After the death of Mithridates VI (63 BC), Pharnaces II (63–47 BC) supplicated to Pompey, and then tried to regain his dominion during Julius Caesar's Civil War, but was defeated by Caesar at Zela and was later killed by his former governor and son-in-law Asander. [4]

Before the death of Pharnaces II, Asander had married Pharnaces II's daughter Dynamis. Asander and Dynamis were the ruling monarchs until Caesar commanded a paternal uncle of Dynamis, Mithridates II to declare war on the Bosporan Kingdom and claimed the kingship for himself. Asander and Dynamis were defeated by Caesar's ally and went into political exile. However, after Caesar's death in 44 BC, the Bosporan Kingdom was restored to Asander and Dynamis by Caesar's great nephew and heir Octavian. Asander ruled as an archon and later as king until his death in 17 BC. After the death of Asander, Dynamis was compelled to marry a Roman usurper called Scribonius, but the Romans under Agrippa intervened and established Polemon I of Pontus (16–8 BC) in his place. Polemon married Dynamis in 16 BC and she died in 14 BC. Polemon ruled as king until his death in 8 BC. After the death of Polemon, Aspurgus, the son of Dynamis and Asander, succeeded Polemon.

The Bosporan Kingdom of Aspurgus was a client state of the Roman Empire, protected by Roman garrisons. Aspurgus (8 BC – 38 AD) founded a dynasty of kings which endured with a couple of interruptions until 341 AD. Aspurgus adopted the Imperial Roman names "Tiberius Julius" when he received Roman citizenship and enjoyed the patronage of the first two Roman Emperors, Augustus and Tiberius. All of the following kings adopted these two Roman names followed by a third name, of Thracian (Kotys, Rhescuporis or Rhoemetalces) or local origin (such as Sauromates, Eupator, Ininthimeus, Pharsanzes, Synges, Terianes, Theothorses or Rhadamsades).

The Roman client kings of the dynasty had descended from King Mithridates VI of Pontus and his first wife, his sister Laodice, through Aspurgus. The kings adopted a new calendar (the "Pontic era") introduced by Mithridates VI, starting with 297 BC to date their coins. Bosporan kings struck coinage throughout its period as a client state, which included gold staters bearing portraits of both the Roman emperor and Bosporan king. Like the Roman, Bosporan coinage became increasingly debased during the 3rd century. The coinage makes their lineages fairly clear to historians, though scarcely any events from their reigns are recorded.

The Bosporan Kingdom covered the eastern half of Crimea and the Taman peninsula, and extended along the east coast of the Maeotian marshes to Tanais at the mouth of the Don in the north-east, a great market for trade with the interior. Throughout the period there was perpetual war with the native tribes of Scythians and Sarmatians, and in this the Bosporan Kingdom was supported by its Roman suzerains, who lent the assistance of garrisons and fleets.

In 62 AD for reasons unknown, Roman emperor Nero deposed the Bosporan king Cotys I. [7] It is possible that Nero wanted to minimise the power of local client rulers and wanted the Bosporans to be subsumed into the Roman empire. The Bosporan Kingdom was incorporated as part of the Roman province of Moesia Inferior from 63 to 68. In 68, the new Roman emperor Galba restored the Bosporan Kingdom to Rhescuporis I, the son of Cotys I.

Following the Jewish diaspora, Judaism emerged in the region, and Jewish communities developed in some of the cities of the region (especially Tanais). The Jewish or Thracian influence on the region may have inspired the foundation of a cult to the "Most High God", a distinct regional cult which emerged in the 1st century AD, [2] which professed monotheism without being distinctively Jewish or Christian. [8]

The balance of power amongst local tribes was severely disturbed by westward migration in the 3rd–4th centuries. In the 250s AD, the Goths and Borani were able to seize Bosporan shipping and even raid the shores of Anatolia. [9]

With the coins of the last king Rhescuporis VI in 341, constructing a chronology becomes very difficult. The kingdom was probably finally overrun by the Huns, who defeated the nearby Alans in 375/376 and moved rapidly westwards towards the Roman empire. [4]

A few centuries after the Hunnic invasion, the Bosporan cities enjoyed a revival, under Byzantine and Bulgarian protection. The ancient Greek city of Phanagoria became the capital of Old Great Bulgaria between 632 and 665. [ citation needed ] From time to time Byzantine Greek officers built fortresses and exercised authority at Bosporus, which constituted an archbishopric.

A relevant Byzantine usage of the term is found in a newly discovered seal of a general of the early 11th century as of " Πο⟨σ⟩φορ(ου) ", i.e., of the Cimmerian Bosporos. [10]

They also held Tmutarakan on the eastern side of the strait, a town which in the 10th and 11th centuries became the seat of the Kievan Rus principality of Tmutarakan, which in turn gave way to Tatar domination. [4]

Although considered rare among collectors prior to the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, Bosporan coins are now well known on the international coin markets, hinting at the quantities produced. Several large series were produced by Bosporan cities from the 5th century BC, particularly in Panticapaeum. Gold staters of Panticapaeum bearing Pan's head and a griffin are especially remarkable for their weight and fine workmanship.

There are coins with the names of the later Spartocids and a complete series of dated solidi issued by the later or Achaemenian dynasty. In them may be noticed the swift degeneration of the gold solidus through silver and potin to bronze. [11]


Contents

Rome started to dominate the Crimea peninsula (then called Taurica) in the 1st century BCE. The initial area of their penetration was mainly in eastern Crimea (Bosporus kingdom) and in the western Greek city of Chersonesos. [1] The interior was only nominally under Roman rule. [2]

In ancient times Crimea was known as "Chersonesus Taurica", from the name of the Tauri, who were descendants of the Cimmerians. Many Greek colonists settled in Taurica: their most renowned colony was Chersonesos. In 114 BCE the Bosporus kingdom accepted the overlordship of Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, as a protection from tribes of Scythians. For nearly five centuries after the defeat of Mithridates by the Roman Pompey, Crimea was under the suzerainty of Rome.

The main Roman settlement was Charax, a castrum probably built around 60–65, and the main naval Roman base was in Chersonesos. [3]

When the Romans arrived at Taurica, they set up their camp and built a fortress and a temple of Jupiter Dolichenus on the coast of the harbor of Balaklava, then called Symbolon Limen. [4]

Tiberius Julius Aspurgus (8 BC – 38) founded a line of Bosporan Kings which endured with some interruptions until 341. Originally called Aspurgus, he adopted the Roman names "Tiberius Julius" because he received Roman citizenship and enjoyed the patronage of the first two Roman Emperors, Augustus and Tiberius. All of the following kings adopted these two Roman names followed by a third name, mostly of Pontic, Thracian or Sarmatian origin. Bosporan kings struck coinage throughout the kingdom period, which included gold staters bearing portraits of the respective Roman Emperors.

In 67, Emperor Nero prepared a military expedition to conquer for Rome all the northern shores of the Black Sea from the Caucasus to what is now Romania-Moldova-Ukraine, but his death stopped the project. For this reason he probably put Taurica under direct Roman rule and created the Charax castrum. [5] He extended the Roman province of Lower Moesia to Tyras, Olbia and Taurica (the peninsula of Crimea).

Taurica enjoyed a relative golden period under Roman leadership during the 2nd century CE, with huge commerce of wheat, clothing, wine and slaves.

The prosperous merchant-towns (of Taurica), permanently in need of military protection amidst a flux of barbaric peoples, held to Rome as the advanced posts to the main army. (during that century) Roman troops were stationed in the peninsula, perhaps a division of the Pontic fleet, certainly a detachment of the Moesian army, (other garrisons in Panticapaeum and Chersonesos) their presence even in small numbers showed to the barbarians that the dreaded legionary stood behind (the Bosporanum Regnum). [6]

The region was temporarily conquered by the Goths in 250. The last client king of the Roman Empire in Taurica was Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis VI, who died in 342. Rhescuporis seems to have minted coins as late as 341, indicating that there was some extent of political control over the remnants of the kingdom at this point. The remnants of the Bosporan kingdom were finally swept away with the invasion of the Huns in 375/6.

Charax Edit

The largest Roman military settlement in Crimea was Charax. [7] It was sited on a four-hectare area at the western ridge of "Ai Todor", close to the modern Yalta castle of Swallow's Nest.

When in 62–66 CE the Roman garrisons were installed in Taurica, Charax became one of their strongholds. The Romans built a fortress and stationed a sub-unit (vexillatio) of the "Ravenna squadron". Charax was a very important strategic point, because it allowed the Romans to establish control over the navigation along the Crimean coast.

The military camp was fully developed under Vespasian with the intention of protecting Chersonesos and other Bosporean trade emporiums from the Scythians. [8] By the end of the 1st century, the Roman forces were evacuated from the Crimea peninsula.

Several decades later the camp was restored by a vexillatio of the Legio I Italica: it hosted a detachment of the Legio XI Claudia at the end of the 2nd century. In this century, new stone walls were added to the fortress and a new Roman road was built, connecting Charax to Chersonesos. [9]


Bosporan Kingdom. The last war with the empire

At the very beginning of the XNUMXst century AD, there was a relative calm in relations between Rome and the Bosporus kingdom. The empire ceased to exert direct pressure on the region, and the ruling elites of the Northern Black Sea region, in turn, ceased to strive to get out of the influence of their powerful neighbor.

The rise to power of King Aspurg only strengthened the relationship between the powers. Not being a member of any of the earlier ruling dynasties, he was forced to look for a powerful ally who, at least formally, could confirm the legitimacy of his presence on the throne. The result of this alliance was the temporary stabilization of the life of the society of the states of the Northern Black Sea region and more or less reliable protection from external enemies.

However, the breath of the Great Steppe and its countless number of peoples continued to excite the imagination of the rulers of the Bosporus. The inexhaustible military power of the nomadic barbarian hordes was too much of a temptation to simply ignore, and by the middle of the XNUMXst century AD, the banner of war was once again raised over the steppes of Crimea and Taman.

The lust for power and ambition again dragged the Bosporus kingdom into the struggle with the mighty Rome. But first things first.

Barbarian and friend of the Romans on the Bosporus throne

The origin of Aspurg is not known for certain. There is a version that Dynamia, the granddaughter of Mithridates VI Eupator and the Bosporus ruler, who played an important role in the Northern Black Sea region at the turn of the epochs, brought him to power. Some historians believe that, wishing to enlist the support of a militarily strong nomadic group of Aspurgians, she adopted one of the barbarian princes, thereby opening the way for him to the throne.

Aspurg himself ascended the throne in A.D. 14. e., having previously visited Rome in order to conclude a treaty of friendship and obtain legal approval for being in power.


Aspurg is the king of the Bosporus. Copper coin.

In the role of the king of the Bosporus, he showed himself to be a skillful commander, an energetic politician and a subtle diplomat. With the support of Rome and the enormous military resources of the nomadic world, he took active steps to strengthen the borders and expand his sphere of influence.

On the western borders, Aspurg managed to conclude a defensive alliance with Chersonesos, as well as to conquer the Scythians and Taurus, significantly reducing their raids on Greek settlements. In the east, he restored the fortifications of key territories of the Bosporus kingdom and established peaceful relations with the motley nomadic tribes of the region.

The ambitious ruler did not forget about his own dynastic position. In the late 20s - early 30s of the XNUMXst century A.D. e. Aspurgus married Hypepiria, a representative of the Thracian ruling clan. This marriage gave him the right to formally become the legal heir to the ancient Bosporan dynasty of the Spartokids, which ruled in the region for about three hundred years. From this union, Aspurgus had two sons - Mithridates and Kotis, who later assumed power in the kingdom.

The stabilization of the situation in the Northern Black Sea region found its response in strengthening the relations of the Bosporus kingdom with Rome, for which Aspurg was the best fit. He fully met the criteria that were presented to the rulers of states friendly to the empire: he was a fairly popular figure for the population of the kingdom, had a subtle political instinct and at the same time obediently followed the will of the rulers of Rome.

The significant trust on the part of Rome in relation to Aspurgus was most likely manifested in the granting of the title of a Roman citizen to him and his descendants, expressed in the adoption by the Bosporan kings of the name Tiberius Julius, which became dynastic for local kings until the XNUMXth century AD.

Mithridates and Rome are incompatible concepts

Aspurg passed away in 37 AD, at a time when power in Rome passed from Tiberius to Caligula. With the arrival of a new emperor, uncertainty arose in the regions regarding their further status and level of autonomy, including the Northern Black Sea region, for which Caligula had his own plans.

As for the succession to the throne after the death of Aspurg, the opinions of scientists differ somewhat. Some believe that the power for some time was taken by Gipepiria, who ruled the state until the age of majority of the direct heir to the throne - Mithridates VIII. Others, not denying that Aspurg's wife was in power, are inclined to believe that the eldest son, who was supposed to become king, simply could not take the throne, since he was at that time as an honorary hostage in Rome, where he received the appropriate education and passed the process of introduction into the imperial culture. The practice of keeping the children of controlled states in the capital was widespread at that time.

As mentioned earlier, Caligula had separate views of the Black Sea kingdoms. Initially, he did not plan to transfer the Bosporan throne to the heirs of Aspurg. His idea was to unite the Bosporus and Pontic kingdoms under one leadership for a closer and more convenient control over the territories. Polemon II, the grandson of Polemon I, who was already trying to carry out the idea of ​​Rome, but was killed by the very Aspurgians, whose name was taken by the deceased king of the Bosporus, was prophesied to be the ruler of the united lands.

Fortunately, the empire quickly realized that the unification of states could cause new unrest in the Northern Black Sea region, which could well have resulted not just in an uprising, but, given the close ties of the ruling house with the barbaric world, in a full-scale conflict. Therefore, the stake in the reign was nevertheless made on Mithridates VIII, and Polemon II was given control over Cilicia, a region previously belonging to his grandfather.

Returning to his homeland and accepting the throne, Mithridates VIII at first zealously demonstrated loyalty and friendship to his patron, supporting all the initiatives that were so rich in the reign of Caligula. In this, the young king was hardly different from other rulers of states friendly to Rome. However, it is likely that even then he was thinking about conducting a more independent and independent political activity from the empire.

Like his great ancestor, Mithridates VI Eupator, the new ruler of the Bosporus kingdom relied on the huge military resources of the nomadic world in the neighborhood. While in power, he actively flirted with the Scythians, regularly sending them gifts and assurances of strong and mutually beneficial friendship, while not forgetting about his eastern neighbors - the numerous Sarmatian tribes with whom the ruling circles had fairly close relations.


Images of warriors. Stasovsky crypt. On the right is a photograph. On the left is a drawing from a photo. At the end of the XNUMXst century BC. e. - I in n. e. the theme of battle scenes and armies was quite common

Nevertheless, Mithridates VIII was in no hurry to enter into confrontation with Rome. Apparently, perfectly aware of the power of the legions of the empire, he was waiting for the right moment to embody his ambitions. After the assassination of Caligula and the establishment of Claudius on the throne, he even sent his brother Cotis as a goodwill ambassador to assure the new emperor of loyalty to Rome. However, Cotis had his own views on the situation and, having arrived in the capital of the empire, tried to convey to Claudius the real state of affairs and the situation on the northern shores of the Black Sea.

The historian Cassius Dio has this to say about this:

The betrayal of Kotis led to a round of aggravation of relations between the Bosporus and Rome. Realizing that it was pointless to conceal intentions, Mithridates VIII openly announced a new political course and, judging by the notes of Cornelius Tacitus in relation to Claudius, carried out a number of anti-Roman actions on the territory of the state.

It is likely that the Bosporus ruler, in order to confirm his intentions against Rome, deliberately destroyed statues and objects of art associated with the imperial rule.

Bosporan War 45-49 AD e.

To suppress the uprising in the rebellious state and to establish Cotis on the throne of the Bosporan kingdom, Claudius instructed the governor of the province of Moesia - Aulus Didius Gallus. A military group of at least a legion was formed against Mithridates, to which were added several cohorts of arrivals from Bithynia, an auxiliary cavalry detachment and several detachments of soldiers recruited from the local population.

The gathering point of the military group was, most likely, Chersonesos. Further, the army of Rome, without any difficulty, ousted Mithridates VIII from the European part of the Bosporus (the Crimean peninsula), forcing him, together with the army, to leave the Kuban steppe. To maintain the power of the new ruler, several cohorts were left to help him under the control of Gaius Julius Aquilla, while the main army left the territory of the kingdom.

After the loss of the capital, the rebellious king was not at all going to add weapon. Most likely, he did not hope for strong support in the Crimean part of the country, relying mainly on the troops of friendly barbarians. Mithridates VIII for some time moved through the territories of the Kuban region, so that, according to Tacitus:

Accumulating an impressive army, he put Cotis and Aquilla in a difficult position. It was pointless to wait for the moment when the rebellious king would gather a horde and return to the territory of Crimea, but he did not want to climb into the cauldron of aggressive barbarian tribes without support. Therefore, according to the records of the same Tacitus, the Roman-Bosporan coalition began to look for allies among the nomadic tribes.

Such a move, obviously, was due to the lack of strong cavalry among the Romans and supporters of Cotis, which was fundamentally necessary in the upcoming battles.

Potential allies in the future campaign, most likely, were not chosen by chance. According to a number of historians, the Sirak tribes, which acted as the main military force of Mithridates, and the Aorse tribes were in a long-standing confrontation, and the fact that the nomads nevertheless joined the alliance played a role not so much the benefits of relations with Rome and the Bosporus, but rather long ago. rivalry between two nomadic groups.

After reaching agreements, the united army moved deep into the territories of the nomads. On the way to the country of the Danarians, where the donkey Mithridates, the Roman-Bosporan army fought several successful battles and without any difficulty approached the city of Uspa, the capital of the rebellious king's main allies.

Situated on a hill, the main city of Shirak appears to be quite populated. It was surrounded by ditches and walls, but not of stone, but of woven rods with earth poured in the middle. The height of these structures is not known for certain, but, based on similar structures, it is unlikely to exceed four meters. Despite the simplicity and primitiveness of these structures, the Roman-Bosporan army did not manage to take the city outright. Having failed, immediately for a day, the advancing troops blocked the approaches to Uspe, filled the ditches and erected mobile assault towers, on which, without any obstacles, they threw the defenders with burning torches and spears.

The next day, rejecting the peace proposals, the Romans took the city by storm and massacred it. The mass extermination of the Sirak capital made their leader doubt the advisability of a further war, and he, according to Tacitus:

This outcome of the case was quite satisfactory for the winners, since, despite the successes, everyone understood perfectly well that it was extremely difficult to completely subjugate the nomads.

The rebellious king's exodus

Having lost the support of his main allies, Mithridates VIII was eventually forced to surrender. The former king resorted to the mercy of the leader of the Aorses, Eunon, who made the emperor agree not to lead the captive in a triumphal procession and save his life. Claudius agreed to the proposed conditions and was brought to Rome as a prisoner, lived there for almost twenty years, until he was executed for participating in a conspiracy against the emperor Galba. Apparently, Roman education once brought Mithridates not only the light of civilization, but also the shadow sides of the life of the empire.

War 45-49 AD e. was the last attempt of the Bosporus kingdom to secede from Rome and pursue an absolutely independent autonomous policy. And although none of the wars ultimately succeeded, all of them, in one way or another, contributed to the fact that the empire in relation to the Northern Black Sea region subsequently formed a more balanced policy that took into account the interests of the vassal state.


History

In 430 BC power was held by Spartok, the founder of the Spartaids dynasty, who ruled the Cimmerian Bosporus until 108 BC. Judging by the name, the founder of the dynasty did not come from the Greeks. Most likely, his origins should be sought in the territory of Thrace. A close relationship with the barbarian tribes can be seen during the entire rule of the Spartaids dynasty. After the brief rule of Spartok, King Satyr I 433-389 BC came to power, and energetically begin to increase territory of the state. That was continued by Levkon I and Perissad I 348-311 BC, they are the rulers of the IV century BC which is associated with the period of the highest heyday of the Bosporus.

After the death of Perissad I, a struggle broke out between his sons. Sources show the political connections of the Spartacides with Athens, Delphi, Delos, Miletus, Egypt. The last of the Spartacides, Perissad V, was compelled to abdicate. In the year 108 BC, he transferred power to the ruler of the Pontian kingdom, Mithridates VI, who then owned vast territories and became a dangerous enemy of Rome itself.

In the 80’s BC the Bosporans rebelled against Mithridates but were pacified by him, and he handed over the control of the Bosporus to his son Mahar. Mithridates personally arrived at the Cimmerian Bosporus and turned it into a springboard for a new war with Rome. Huge fees for the maintenance of the army, the construction of the fleet and fortifications, the recruitment of slaves into the army, and then the naval blockade by the Roman fleet aroused dissatisfaction of the Bosporus and exhausted it. In 63 BC in the Bosporus, devastating earthquake happened. In the same year, Mithridates died, hiding in a palace on top of a mountain from mutinous soldiers who proclaimed his son as the ruler.

Rome sought to place its followers on his throne, holding troops there. And yet the degree of dependence on Rome was not great. Since the end of the first century, Rome increasingly sees Bospor as an important outpost in the northeast, capable of restraining the onslaught of barbarians. At the beginning of the third century, the tribes of the Germans came from the shores of the Baltic Sea. In the 230’s, the tribes of the Gothic union destroyed the city of Gorgippia, in the 240’s, the city of Tanais and surrounding settlements were completely destroyed. At the same time, Alans started to move from the east. From the middle of the third century, the Bosporus state was subjected to the onslaught of barbarians. In the IV century, Bosporus appeals to the Romans, but Rome barely fights off the barbarians and cannot help the weakened Bosporus. The invasion of the Huns passed the Bosporus state.

The Bosporan state existed until the beginning of the sixth century. There is a gradual Christianization of the state. In the 520-530 Byzantium establishes direct power over the Bosporus. In 576, the territory from modern Georgia to the Crimea was conquered by the Turkic Khaganate.


Bosporan Kingdom. The heavy hand of Rome


Source: roman-glory.com

In the middle of the XNUMXst century BC. e. after the collapse of the Pontic state and the death of Mithridates VI Eupator, his son Pharnaces II was entrenched in power in the Bosporus. By betraying his father and raising a revolt against him, he hoped thereby to arouse favor with the Roman Republic and to keep at least part of the territories in his hands.

As a confirmation of his affection for the Romans, he embalmed his father's body and sent it to the commander Pompey. With a request to leave in his possession the former lands of Pontus or at least the Bosporus kingdom.

Friend and ally of the Roman people

The republic at that time had no time for the northern lands of the Black Sea.

And Pharnacs, having received the status, took over the reins of the Bosporus kingdom. However, given whose son the new king was and how he treated his father, Guineas Pompey limited his power in advance, granting autonomy to the largest city in the Asian part of the Bosporus - Phanagoria and the adjacent settlements.

Pharnaces had no choice but to agree to the proposed terms.

He was well aware that his position (as a king) was very precarious at that moment. And the throne could slip out of hand at any moment. Moreover, given the fact that there were no Roman troops in the region.

In other matters of politics, little limited the power of the ruler.

During his early years on the throne, Pharnaces were mainly concerned with restoring trust among the Greek cities and suppressing the separatist sentiments of the barbarian tribes. In his policy, the young tsar openly condemned the actions of his father in the last years of his life and condemned the general taxes and harsh duties with which Mithridates VI Eupator imposed the inhabitants of the Greek city-states.

Along the way, flirting with Rome and literally imposing his loyalty to him, Pharnaces gradually strengthened his power in the region, hatching more serious plans than ruling the Bosporan kingdom.

Betrayed once, betrayed the second

Increased tensions in Rome, the threat of civil war, and the beginning of the struggle between the triumvirs Caesar and Pompey in the 50s. e. prompted Pharnaces to start decisive military actions aimed at restoring the territories of the Pontic kingdom.

Having subjugated Phanagoria, the king left a certain Asander as governor. And in 49/48 BC. e. went on a military campaign.

Having conquered Colchis, Lesser Armenia and Cappadocia with relative ease, Pharnacs abruptly changed the vector of friendship.

Refusing the call for help from Pompey, he expelled all his supporters from the conquered lands. In his new political game, the Bosporus king tried to win Caesar's favor and enlist his support in the further unification of the lands of the Pontine kingdom.

However, the great commander had his own views on the situation.

Busy with the restoration of power in Egypt, Caesar instructed the Roman commander Dominius Calvin to secure the return of the lands taken from them to the friends of the Romans.

Under the command of Calvin, the XXXVI legion, two legions created by the Galatian king Deiotar according to the Roman model, two hundred horsemen, a legion of recruits from Pontus and auxiliary troops from Cilicia came forward.

The number of Pharnaces' troops in the battle with Dominicus Calvin is unknown. However, of course, the initiative for the battle was in his hands.

At first, the king tried to use military cunning. Located in a gorge beyond the pass from the positions of the Romans, he collected a large number of livestock from the local population and released them for free range. Pharnace's plan was simple. Having set aside an ambush, he hoped that the Roman troops would try to capture the herds, scatter over the territory and it would be easy to kill them, delivering unexpected blows from several directions.

In parallel with these preparations, Pharnaces did not stop sending ambassadors to the Roman camp with an offer of peace and friendship.

In his subsequent actions, the Bosporus king will constantly resort to this maneuver. Having seized territories, he will each time send ambassadors to the enemy's troops with a proposal for peace, thereby acting as a victim in the person of the local residents, who, despite the desire to end the war, is forced to defend against Roman aggression.


Image of Pharnaces on a gold coin. Source: wikipedia.org

Despite the tricks of Pharnaces, the ambush failed.

And the soldiers who were there had to be recalled. Only then did Dominius Calvin come closer to Nicopolis, where the Bosporus king settled. And set up camp right in front of the city.

In response, Pharnaces led his troops into battle formation, offering battle. The Roman commander was in no hurry to accept the battle, lining up part of the army in front of the defensive rampart. While the rest of the warriors were completing the fortification of the camp.

The stand could drag on. However, Pharnace was lucky.

At night, his troops managed to intercept the letter, from which it became clear that Caesar demanded that Calvin immediately send him military aid to Alexandria, where he found himself in a difficult situation. As the Roman general was forced to leave soon, Pharnaces chose a different tactic.

The tsar ordered to dig two ditches at a short distance from each other, more than a meter deep. Between them, he lined up his infantry, and placed numerous cavalry on the flanks outside the ditches.

The Roman army could no longer be under the protection of the camp. And I was forced to fight. The most reliable XXXVI legion took up a position on the right flank. Recruited from the inhabitants of Pontus - on the left. The other two occupied the center of the formation. Auxiliary cohorts formed a reserve.

After the signal for battle from both sides, a fierce battle unfolded, proceeding with varying degrees of success. The XXXVI legion struck at the royal cavalry, pushed it back, forced the ditch and struck the enemy's rear. The Pontic Legion on the left flank was not doing so well. Pushed aside from his positions, he made an attempt to strike and cross the moat. But he was fired upon by the enemy. And almost completely died.

The central groups of forces with difficulty held back the onslaught of the army of Pharnaces. And they suffered huge losses. In the end, most of the Roman army was dispersed. And only the XXXVI Legion managed to retreat in an organized way.

Inspired by the victory, Pharnaces captured Pontus and Bithynia. Having replenished the army and procured the old sickle-bearing chariots found in the royal arsenal, he continued his campaign of conquest.

However, the further situation for the king began to develop not so smoothly.

Bad luck streak

Many Pontic cities, seeing the cruel measures against the occupied territories, did not open the gates for the son of Mithridates VI Eupator. In his own Bosporan kingdom, a rebellion broke out, led by him as governor Asander.

On top of that, Caesar, having successfully completed the Alexandrian War, arrived in Asia Minor to restore Roman order.

In fact, Pharnaces was trapped.

Not finding mass support among the local population, unable to retreat to the lands of the Northern Black Sea region, he was forced to enter into negotiations with Caesar, going for an outright bluff.

Through his ambassadors, Pharnaces offered peace to the Roman general. Declaring at the same time that his army is invincible and did not lose any of the twenty-two battles in which he took part.

The former Bosporus tsar did not forget about his previous political line. So, he even offered Caesar to intermarry with him, passing off his daughter Dynamia as a Roman commander.

Caesar's response to suggestions and indirect threats was simple. He demanded to leave the conquered territories and retreat together with the entire army. For reasons that there was nowhere to return, Pharnacs decided to give a general battle.

The troops converged at the small town of Zela, where Mithridates once defeated the Roman general Triarius. The tsar's hope that luck would smile at him here was not justified.

Acting as decisively as possible, Caesar occupied a hill not far from the enemy's army and began hastily to build camp fortifications.

Deciding not to hesitate and catch the Romans by surprise, August 2, 47 BC. e. Pharnaces moved his troops to attack.

The Romans, considering these actions as tactical maneuvers, did not take them for the beginning of the battle. But, quite unexpectedly, the dense masses of soldiers rushed up the slope to attack. Caught by surprise, Caesar hastily issued the command to form the legions.

But when the formations of the Roman army had not yet been completed, sickle-bearing chariots fell upon them, each of which was led by a team of four horses.

В stories military conflicts, this was the last attack using sickle chariots.

Designed for surprise and psychological effects, it should have caused confusion in the Roman army and given time for the main group of troops to reach the top of the hill.

At first, Pharnace's idea came true.

The Roman legions were confused. And they did not have time to rebuild by the time the infantry approached. Despite the inconvenience of the terrain for the advancing side, a fierce battle ensued, which lasted four hours and ended in a crushing victory for the Romans.

It was after the battle at Zele that Caesar pronounced his famous:

Fleeing to Sinop, Pharnaces managed to get to the Bosporus by ships. And, relying on the support of the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes, he was even able to capture Theodosia and Panticapaeum.

However, then luck finally left him.

The former king died in one of the battles, opening the way to the throne for his former governor Asander.

The iron will of the Roman Empire

Despite the fact that the rebellious king died, Rome did not like at all that in the kingdom under his control, their own games were being played in the struggle for the throne.

To establish power in the Bosporus, Caesar instructed his friend Mithridates of Pergamon to move against Asander and take the throne of the kingdom himself. The claims of the Roman henchman were unsuccessful. And in 46 BC. e. he died. Having left for the capital, Caesar could not intervene in these events. And the power actually remained with Asander.

Having failed to achieve recognition from Rome, the former governor married the previously mentioned daughter of Pharnaces, Dynamia. Thus, legitimizing their stay on the throne.

Becoming the successor of the Mithridates dynasty, Asander actively began to increase the defenses of the borders of the Bosporus kingdom, having established himself as a strong and purposeful ruler.

Since that time, a significant influx of new nomadic tribes has been observed on the territory of the Northern Black Sea region, which actively penetrated the Bosporus environment, increasing the military potential of the kingdom. Among the peoples who came, it is worth highlighting the barbarians - the Aspurgians, who will still appear in the historical arena of the Bosporus.

Asander ruled the kingdom as king for about twenty-four years (45/44 to 21/20 BC).

Then he divided the power over the Bosporus between himself and Dynamia. Most likely, this decision was made by him because of his venerable age and inability to quickly respond to emerging challenges.

It is important to mention that even during the life of Asander by 17/16 BC. e. on the territory of the Bosporus kingdom, a certain Scribonius appeared, who pretended to be the grandson of Mithridates VI Eupator. Referring to the order of Augustus, he took Dynamia as his wife and declared himself king of the Bosporus.

Upon learning of this, the Roman general Agrippa sent the Pontic king Polemon I to the Northern Black Sea region with the aim of overthrowing the impostor and establishing Roman power in the kingdom.

The Bosporians, most likely not wanting a new conflict with Rome, themselves eliminated Scribonia.

However, Polemon I could not independently settle on the throne due to the resistance of a part of the local population. And only the direct intervention of Agrippa forced the Bosporians to recognize the protégé of Rome.

To establish power, Polemon I, like his predecessors, married Dynamia, legally securing the throne. Their marriage did not last long. Already in 12 BC. e. he married Pythodoris, the granddaughter of Mark Antony. And he had three children by her.

Despite the support of Rome, the position of the new king was fragile.

This was especially evident in the Asian part of the Bosporus kingdom, in order to strengthen the power in which Polemon I already in 14 BC. e. launched a series of military campaigns aimed at suppressing the unrest. The course of these events is evidenced by traces of destruction found in the areas of Phanagoria, Bati (Novorossiysk), and also Gorgippia (Anapa).

The Aspurgians (already mentioned earlier) were especially active in the fight against Polemon I.

There are no reliable sources about the culture to which this barbarian group belonged. Coming to the service of Asander, they quickly gained a foothold in the territory, forming an impressive military force. According to a number of historians, the Aspurgians belonged to the Sarmatian nomadic environment, who arrived to the northern shores of the Black Sea from the Caspian steppes.

Given the territory that was provided to them for accommodation (namely, between Phanagoria and Gorgippia), historians suggest that this was not a full-fledged nomadic group, but rather a military squad consisting of professional warriors led by one leader. It is even possible that in order to strengthen the alliance, the ties between the Bosporus rulers of the time of Asander and the Aspurgian tribes were reinforced by kinship relations that were actively practiced in the region.

It is extremely important to note the version that the Queen Dinamia at the very end of the XNUMXst century. BC e. adopted the son of one of the Aspurgian leaders, thus bringing the barbarian elite closer to the ruling dynasty.

Returning to the wars of Polemon I, it is worth noting that his struggle for the Taman Peninsula ended in failure.

In 8 BC. e., according to the testimony of the historian Strabo, the king of the Pontic and Bosporus kingdoms died at the hands of the Aspurgians.

Nevertheless, despite the death of the governor of Rome and the active resistance of the barbarian elite of the imperial domination, from the end of the XNUMXst century BC. e. The Bosporan kingdom firmly entered the sphere of Roman influence.

On their borders, the rulers of the Northern Black Sea region had to maintain friendly relations with neighboring barbarian tribes, track the movements of nomadic tribes, protect the population from raids and, if possible, not unleash wars aimed at seizing territories.

The Bosporan kingdom passed into a new era for itself, in which the Roman Empire now played a significant place.


Contents

The whole area was dotted with Greek cities: in the west, Panticapaeum (Kerch)—the most significant city in the region, Nymphaeum and Myrmekion on the east Phanagoria (the second city of the region), Kepoi, Hermonassa, Portus Sindicus and Gorgippia. [4]

These Greek colonies were originally settled by Milesians in the 7th and 6th centuries BC. Phanagoria (c. 540 BC) was a colony of Teos, and the foundation of Nymphaeum may have had a connection with Athens at least it appears to have been a member of the Delian League in the 5th century. [4]

The Bosporan Kingdom was centred around the Kerch Strait between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, known in antiquity as the Cimmerian Bosporus from where the kingdom's name derived.

Archaeanactidae dynasty Edit

According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (xii. 31) the region was governed between 480 and 438 BC by a line of kings called the Archaeanactidae, probably a ruling family, usurped by a tyrant called Spartocus (438–431 BC), who was a Thracian. [4]

Spartocid dynasty Edit

Spartocus founded a dynasty which seems to have endured until c. 110 BC, known as the Spartocids. The Spartocids left many inscriptions, indicating that the earliest members of the house ruled under the titles of archons of the Greek cities and kings of various minor native tribes, notably the Sindi (from central Crimea) and other branches of the Maeotae. Surviving material (texts, inscriptions and coins) do not supply enough information to reconstruct a complete chronology of kings of the region. [4]

Satyrus (431–387 BC), successor to Spartocus, established his rule over the whole region, adding Nymphaeum to his kingdom and besieging Theodosia, which was wealthy because, unlike other cities in the region, it had a port which was free of ice throughout the year, allowing it to trade grain with the rest of the Greek world, even in winter. Satyrus' son Leucon (387–347 BC) eventually took the city. He was succeeded jointly by his two sons, Spartocus II, and Paerisades Spartocus died in 342 BC, allowing Paerisades to reign alone until 310 BC. [4] After Paerisades' death, a war of succession between his sons Satyrus and Eumelus was fought. Satyrus defeated his younger brother Eumelus at the Battle of the River Thatis in 310 BC but was then killed in battle, giving Eumelus the throne. [5]

Eumelus' successor was Spartocus III (303–283 BC) and after him Paerisades II. Succeeding princes repeated the family names, so it is impossible to assign them a definite order. The last of them, however, Paerisades V, unable to make headway against increasingly violent attacks from nomadic tribes in the area, called in the help of Diophantus, general of King Mithridates VI of Pontus, leaving him his kingdom. Paerisades was killed by a Scythian named Saumacus who led a rebellion against him. [4]

The house of Spartocus was well known as a line of enlightened and wise princes although Greek opinion could not deny that they were, strictly speaking, tyrants, they are always described as dynasts. They maintained close relations with Athens, their best customer for the Bosporan grain exports: Leucon I of Bosporus created privileges for Athenian ships at Bosporan ports. The Attic orators make numerous references to this. In return the Athenians granted Leucon Athenian citizenship and made decrees in honour of him and his sons. [4]

Mithridates VI Edit

After his defeat by Roman General Pompey in 66 BC, King Mithridates VI of Pontus fled with a small army from Colchis (modern Georgia) over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans. His eldest living son, Machares, regent of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father, so Mithridates had Machares killed, acquiring the throne for himself. Mithridates then ordered the conscriptions and preparations for war. In 63 BC, Pharnaces, the youngest son of Mithridates, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates's Pontic army. Mithridates VI withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide. Pompey buried Mithridates VI in a rock-cut tomb in either Sinope or Amasia, [6] the capital of the Kingdom of Pontus.

After the death of Mithridates VI (63 BC), Pharnaces II (63–47 BC) supplicated to Pompey, and then tried to regain his dominion during Julius Caesar's Civil War, but was defeated by Caesar at Zela and was later killed by his former governor and son-in-law Asander. [4]

Before the death of Pharnaces II, Asander had married Pharnaces II's daughter Dynamis. Asander and Dynamis were the ruling monarchs until Caesar commanded a paternal uncle of Dynamis, Mithridates II to declare war on the Bosporan Kingdom and claimed the kingship for himself. Asander and Dynamis were defeated by Caesar's ally and went into political exile. However, after Caesar's death in 44 BC, the Bosporan Kingdom was restored to Asander and Dynamis by Caesar's great nephew and heir Octavian. Asander ruled as an archon and later as king until his death in 17 BC. After the death of Asander, Dynamis was compelled to marry a Roman usurper called Scribonius, but the Romans under Agrippa intervened and established Polemon I of Pontus (16–8 BC) in his place. Polemon married Dynamis in 16 BC and she died in 14 BC. Polemon ruled as king until his death in 8 BC. After the death of Polemon, Aspurgus, the son of Dynamis and Asander, succeeded Polemon.

The Bosporan Kingdom of Aspurgus was a client state of the Roman Empire, protected by Roman garrisons. Aspurgus (8 BC – 38 AD) founded a dynasty of kings which endured with a couple of interruptions until 341 AD. Aspurgus adopted the Imperial Roman names "Tiberius Julius" when he received Roman citizenship and enjoyed the patronage of the first two Roman Emperors, Augustus and Tiberius. All of the following kings adopted these two Roman names followed by a third name, of Thracian (Kotys, Rhescuporis or Rhoemetalces) or local origin (such as Sauromates, Eupator, Ininthimeus, Pharsanzes, Synges, Terianes, Theothorses or Rhadamsades).

The Roman client kings of the dynasty had descended from King Mithridates VI of Pontus and his first wife, his sister Laodice, through Aspurgus. The kings adopted a new calendar (the "Pontic era") introduced by Mithridates VI, starting with 297 BC to date their coins. Bosporan kings struck coinage throughout its period as a client state, which included gold staters bearing portraits of both the Roman emperor and Bosporan king. Like the Roman, Bosporan coinage became increasingly debased during the 3rd century. The coinage makes their lineages fairly clear to historians, though scarcely any events from their reigns are recorded.

The Bosporan Kingdom covered the eastern half of Crimea and the Taman peninsula, and extended along the east coast of the Maeotian marshes to Tanais at the mouth of the Don in the north-east, a great market for trade with the interior. Throughout the period there was perpetual war with the native tribes of Scythians and Sarmatians, and in this the Bosporan Kingdom was supported by its Roman suzerains, who lent the assistance of garrisons and fleets.

In 62 AD for reasons unknown, Roman emperor Nero deposed the Bosporan king Cotys I. [7] It is possible that Nero wanted to minimise the power of local client rulers and wanted the Bosporans to be subsumed into the Roman empire. The Bosporan Kingdom was incorporated as part of the Roman province of Moesia Inferior from 63 to 68. In 68, the new Roman emperor Galba restored the Bosporan Kingdom to Rhescuporis I, the son of Cotys I.

Following the Jewish diaspora, Judaism emerged in the region, and Jewish communities developed in some of the cities of the region (especially Tanais). The Jewish or Thracian influence on the region may have inspired the foundation of a cult to the "Most High God", a distinct regional cult which emerged in the 1st century AD, [2] which professed monotheism without being distinctively Jewish or Christian. [8]

The balance of power amongst local tribes was severely disturbed by westward migration in the 3rd–4th centuries. In the 250s AD, the Goths and Borani were able to seize Bosporan shipping and even raid the shores of Anatolia. [9]

With the coins of the last king Rhescuporis VI in 341, constructing a chronology becomes very difficult. The kingdom was probably finally overrun by the Huns, who defeated the nearby Alans in 375/376 and moved rapidly westwards towards the Roman empire. [4]

A few centuries after the Hunnic invasion, the Bosporan cities enjoyed a revival, under Byzantine and Bulgarian protection. The ancient Greek city of Phanagoria became the capital of Old Great Bulgaria between 632 and 665. [ citation needed ] From time to time Byzantine Greek officers built fortresses and exercised authority at Bosporus, which constituted an archbishopric.

A relevant Byzantine usage of the term is found in a newly discovered seal of a general of the early 11th century as of " Πο⟨σ⟩φορ(ου) ", i.e., of the Cimmerian Bosporos. [10]

They also held Tmutarakan on the eastern side of the strait, a town which in the 10th and 11th centuries became the seat of the Kievan Rus principality of Tmutarakan, which in turn gave way to Tatar domination. [4]

Although considered rare among collectors prior to the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, Bosporan coins are now well known on the international coin markets, hinting at the quantities produced. Several large series were produced by Bosporan cities from the 5th century BC, particularly in Panticapaeum. Gold staters of Panticapaeum bearing Pan's head and a griffin are especially remarkable for their weight and fine workmanship.

There are coins with the names of the later Spartocids and a complete series of dated solidi issued by the later or Achaemenian dynasty. In them may be noticed the swift degeneration of the gold solidus through silver and potin to bronze. [11]


Bosporan Coins

Статья посвящена изучению боспорских бронзовых монет с монограммой BAE на реверсе. Объектами исследования стали как изначально оттиснутые изображения, так и надчеканки на аверсе. Появление на них бюстов и символов Горгоны, Исиды, Зевса Амона и Сераписа не случайно. Ведь до этого после завершения выпуска бронз с монограммой BAE они на Боспоре на государственном уровне не почитались. Этот можно объяснить стремлением их эмитента, по-видимому, Полемона I, не только легитимировать, но и освятить свою власть. С этой целью он насаждал в нем культы неизвестных в регионе богов, которых считал своими покровителями. Результатом стало возмущение большинства местных жителей. Усиление социальной напряженности на Боспоре привело к сокращению зоны влияния этого государя. Вследствие этого Полемон I стал ощущать нехватку средств, отразившуюся не только в хронической порче бронзовой монеты, но и в ее контрамаркировании. Причем на надчеканках были размещены изображения почитаемых на Боспоре богов. Однако это не примирило Полемона I c его северопричерноморскими подданными. Римляне остались единственной опорой его режима. По этой причине к концу правления Полемона I на его бронзах появились надчеканки, прославляющие Г. Юлия Цезаря и Августа. Однако власти Империи понимали, что очевидный антагонизм между Полемоном I и его невольными подданными может привести не только к краху режима этого государя и к системному кризису в Причерноморье но и к появлению антиримского центра влияния регионе. Тем более что жители Боспора стремились всего лишь к восстановлению положения, сложившегося при Асандре. Также они желали почитать отчих богов. В результате римляне не только дистанцировались от Полемона I, но и сочли возможным вскоре после его гибели найти общий язык с Митридатидами. Таким образом, неудачи этого государя подвигли стороны на выработку компромисса, продлившего существование Боспорского царства еще на пять столетий.

The article is devoted to the study of Bosporus bronze coins with the monogram BAE on the reverse. The objects of the study were both initially imprinted images, and over-markings on the obverse. The appearance on them of the busts and symbols of Gorgon, Isis, Zeus Amon and Serapis is not accidental. After all, before the end of the release of bronze with the monogram BAE they were not respected at the state level at the Bosporus. This can be explained by the desire of their issuer, apparently Polemon I, not only to legitimize, but also to sanctify their power. To this end, he planted in it the cults of unknown gods in the region, whom he considered his patrons. The result was an outrage of the majority of local residents. The intensification of social tension on the Bosporus led to a reduction in the zone of influence of this sovereign. As a result, Polemon I began to feel a shortage of funds, reflected not only in the chronic damage to the bronze coin, but also in its counter-marking. And on the coins, images of the gods revered on the Bosporus were placed. However, this did not reconcile Polemon I with his Northern Black Sea subjects.
The Romans remained the only support of his regime. For this reason, by the end of the reign of Polemon I, on his bronze, there appeared countermarks, glorifying G. Julius Caesar and Augustus. However, the authorities of the Empire understood that the obvious antagonism between Polemon I and his unwilling subjects could lead not only to the collapse of the regime of this sovereign and to a systemic crisis in the Black Sea region but also to the emergence of an anti-Roman center of influence for the region. Moreover, the inhabitants of the Bosporus sought only to restore the situation that had developed under Asander. They also wanted to honor the godfathers. As a result, the Romans not only distanced themselves from Polemon I, but also found it possible soon after his death to find a common language with the Mithridatides. Thus, the failures of this sovereign pushed the parties to work out a compromise that extended the existence of the Bosporan kingdom for another five centuries.

The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. VI. IN RUSSIAN.

Четвертый век до нашей эры: в 2 полутомах / Под ред. Д.-М.Льюиса и др. перевод с англ., подготов. текста, предисловие, примечания А.В.Зайкова. – М.: Ладомир, 2017. – Первый полутом. – 624 с. (Кембриджская история древнего мира. Т. VI, первый полутом [1–624 с.]). ISBN 978-5-86218-544-7 ISBN 978-5-86218-545-4 (п/т. 1). 45 у.п.л.

Здесь представлен первый полутом VI тома "Кембриджской истории древнего мира" (перевод английского 2-го издания The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. VI). В этой книге рассказывается о истории греческого мира от конца Пелопоннеской войны до крушения фиванской гегемонии, о Сицилии этого же времени, о перипетиях персидской истории до столкновения Ахеменидов с Македонией представлены также региональные обзоры (в основном по IV в. до н. э., но не только): персидские сатрапии, Карфаген, кельты, иллирийцы, фракийцы и скифы, Боспорское царство. "Закрывает" этот полутом обстоятельное рассмотрение системы коммуникаций в Средиземноморье.
Книга снабжена большим количеством рисунков (академического свойства) и картами.


Watch the video: Bosporan Kingdom - Longest Surviving Ancient Greek State (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Akijind

    This opinion of value

  2. Rickard

    Yes, really. I join told all above. We can communicate on this theme. Here or in PM.

  3. Roslyn

    This version has aged

  4. Kaiser

    How much will it cost to place a banner in the header of the site?



Write a message