15 August 1941

15 August 1941

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15 August 1941



War in the Air

The RAF bombs airfields on Sicily

  • Title: Defense housing, Ben Morrell Project, Norfolk, Virginia. Housing for civilian and married enlisted personnel at the Norfolk, Virginia housing naval base. Constructed at a cost of $3,356,000 by the Navy. Of the 1,362 units built, 1,062 were completed August 15, 1941. Rents range from $17 to $23 a month
  • Creator(s): Palmer, Alfred T., photographer
  • Related Names:
       United States. Office for Emergency Management.
  • Date Created/Published: 1941 Aug.
  • Medium: 1 negative : safety 4 x 5 inches or smaller.
  • Reproduction Number: LC-USE6-D-000956 (b&w film neg.)
  • Call Number: LC-USE6- D-000956 [P&P] LOT 1913 (corresponding photographic print)
  • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
  • Notes:
    • Actual size of negative is C (approximately 4 x 5 inches).
    • Caption card lists some of the printing history of image.
    • Title and other information from caption card.
    • Transfer United States. Office of War Information. Overseas Picture Division. Washington Division 1944.
    • More information about the FSA/OWI Collection is available at
    • Film copy on SIS roll 30, frame 205.
    • United States--Virginia--Norfolk.
    • Safety film negatives.
    • Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives

    The Library of Congress generally does not own rights to material in its collections and, therefore, cannot grant or deny permission to publish or otherwise distribute the material. For further rights information, see "Rights Information" below and the Rights and Restrictions Information page ( ).

    • Rights Advisory: See Rights and Restrictions Information Page
    • Reproduction Number: LC-USE6-D-000956 (b&w film neg.)
    • Call Number: LC-USE6- D-000956 [P&P] LOT 1913 (corresponding photographic print)
    • Medium: 1 negative : safety 4 x 5 inches or smaller.

    If an image is displaying, you can download it yourself. (Some images display only as thumbnails outside the Library of Congress because of rights considerations, but you have access to larger size images on site.)

    Expect Delays in Service of Nitrate Negatives

    Reproductions of all types are available, but Duplication Services anticipates an 8-10 week turnaround in completing orders, as all negatives must be reproduced at their off-site, cold storage facility.

    Clues that an FSA/OWI/OEM image may be affected are:
    Medium field says "1 negative : nitrate" OR
    Reproduction Number field begins with: LC-USF33-

    If either is the case, you may wish to consult with Prints and Photographs Division reference staff (202-707-6394). In certain instances, duplicate negatives are available for copying.

    If only black-and-white ("b&w") sources are listed and you desire a copy showing color or tint (assuming the original has any), you can generally purchase a quality copy of the original in color by citing the Call Number listed above and including the catalog record ("About This Item") with your request.

    Price lists, contact information, and order forms are available on theDuplication Services Web site.

    • Call Number: LC-USE6- D-000956 [P&P] LOT 1913 (corresponding photographic print)
    • Medium: 1 negative : safety 4 x 5 inches or smaller.

    Please use the following steps to determine whether you need to fill out a call slip in the Prints and Photographs Reading Room to view the original item(s). In some cases, a surrogate (substitute image) is available, often in the form of a digital image, a copy print, or microfilm.

    Yes, the item is digitized. Please use the digital image in preference to requesting the original. All images can be viewed at a large size when you are in any reading room at the Library of Congress. In some cases, only thumbnail (small) images are available when you are outside the Library of Congress because the item is rights restricted or has not been evaluated for rights restrictions.

    As a preservation measure, we generally do not serve an original item when a digital image is available. If you have a compelling reason to see the original, consult with a reference librarian. (Sometimes, the original is simply too fragile to serve. For example, glass and film photographic negatives are particularly subject to damage. They are also easier to see online where they are presented as positive images.)

    No, the item is not digitized. Please go to #2.

    Yes, another surrogate exists. Reference staff can direct you to this surrogate.

    No, another surrogate does not exist. Please go to #3.

    If you do not see a thumbnail image or a reference to another surrogate, please fill out a call slip in the Prints and Photographs Reading Room. In many cases, the originals can be served in a few minutes. Other materials require appointments for later the same day or in the future. Reference staff can advise you in both how to fill out a call slip and when the item can be served.

    To contact Reference staff in the Prints and Photographs Reading Room, please use our Ask A Librarian service or call the reading room between 8:30 and 5:00 at 202-707-6394, and Press 3.

    Other Editable Calendar for august 1941

    Looking for other august calendar editable in a different style or layout? We have a large variety of calendar templates for Word, Excel & PDF to download and print.

    Laura Mulvey — The Male Gaze

    Laura Mulvey, born August 15, 1941, is a feminist film critic. Oxford-educated, Mulvey is a highly praised and credible critic known for her theories in film and most popular for her early essay “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”.

    The term “male gaze” was first coined in 1975 by Laura Mulvey i n her essay “Visual Pleasure”. Throughout the work, Mulvey explores the phenomenon of the male gaze, a perspective that serves to segment the female body into pieces that dehumanize the woman and subjects all viewers to a presumed heterosexual male viewpoint. At its heart, it is about portraying the woman as an object to be viewed and, by extension, the man as a subject doing the viewing and acting.

    One of Mulvey’s examples is the first appearance of actress Marilyn Monroe in the 1954 film, The River of No Return. During the scene, Monroe’s character is subject to the male gaze in a way that treats her like an ornamental object. Through a sexualized outfit and the lounging position she assumes, she becomes an object to be viewed, both by the audience of the film and the predominantly male audience within the room of the scene.

    While Mulvey’s definition of the male gaze in “Visual Pleasure” is the earliest use of the term for this concept, it has actually been applied to more than film today. It can just as easily be applied to other media such as video games and television where it can be much more subtle than panning camera angles. It can be something as simple as choices of clothing, the way a female character speaks or moves, or where a still camera angle falls that centralizes sexualized areas of the body.

    Ultimately, the male gaze is a theoretical concept that explores the nuanced ways our culture influences media and, in turn, the way media perpetuates troubling gender dynamics in our culture. It helps to be aware of the concept and to learn from it. In terms of professional writing, understanding the male gaze today offers professional writers an insight into the female perspective and teaches us to be conscientious of this segment of our audience so not to perpetuate the harmfulness of gender objectification.

    Bahá'í History

    The Bahá’í notion of progressive revelation exlcudes many key figures who have generated significant religious movements, whether in the distant past like Confucius or in the 19th Century like Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and Joseph Smith. All religious founders are not universally accepted as prophets.

    "Regarding your question concerning Joseph Smith and the 'Book of Mormon': as the Bahá'í Teachings quite clearly outline the succession of Prophets from the days of Christ as being Muhammad, the Bab, and finally Bahá'u'lláh, it is obvious that Joseph Smith is not a Manifestation of God.

    "The Bahá'ís should deal with the members of all religious sects, however, with the greatest tolerance and friendliness, and try to point out to them the significance of the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh to the world in this great Day. The Guardian would advise you to teach the Mormons like everyone else, the Faith, when you find them receptive. They have many good principles, and their teachings regarding chastity, not drinking or smoking, etc., are quite similar to ours, and should form a point of common interest."

    (From a letter written on behalf of the Guardian to an individual believer, August 18, 1941: Bahá'í News, No. 416, November 1965)

    August 13, 1941 Henry Ford’s Soybean Car

    Henry Ford had a “thing”, for soybeans. At the 1934 World’s Fair in Chicago, Ford invited reporters to a feast where he served soybean cheese, soybean crackers, soy bread and butter, soy milk, soy ice cream… The man was a veritable Bubba Gump, of soybeans.

    The largest museum in the United States is located in the Detroit suburb of Dearborn, the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation. The sprawling, 12-acre indoor-outdoor complex in the old Greenfield Village is home to JFK’s Presidential limo, the Rosa Parks bus and the Wright Brothers’ bicycle shop. There you will find Abraham Lincoln’s chair from Ford’s Theater, along with Thomas Edison’s laboratory and an Oscar Mayer Wienermobile. George Washington’s camp bed is there, with Igor Sikorski’s helicopter and an enormous collection of antique automobiles, locomotives and aircraft.

    Sadly, one object you will not find there, is Henry Ford’s plastic car, made from soybeans.

    Ford left the family farm outside of modern-day Detroit as a young man, never to return. His father William thought the boy would one day own the place but young Henry couldn’t stand farm work. He later wrote, “I never had any particular love for the farm—it was the mother on the farm I loved”.

    Henry Ford went on to other things, but part of him never left the farm. In 1941, the now-wealthy business magnate wanted to combine industry, with agriculture. At least, that’s what the museum says.

    George Washington Carver, at work in his library

    Ford first gave the plastic car project to yacht designer Eugene Turenne Gregorie, but later turned to the Greenfield Village soybean laboratory. To the guy in charge over there, actually, a guy with some experience in tool & die making. His name was Lowell Overly.

    The car was made in Dearborn with help from the scientist and botanist George Washington Carver, (yeah, That George Washington Carver), a man born to slavery who rose to such prodigious levels accomplishment, that Time magazine labeled him the “Black Leonardo”.

    The soybean car, introduced to the public this day in 1941, was made from fourteen ¼-inch thick plastic panels and plexiglass windows, attached to a tubular steel frame and weighing in at 1,900 pounds, about a third lighter than comparable automobiles of the era. The finished prototype was exhibited later that year at the Dearborn Days festival, and the Michigan State Fair Grounds.

    The thing was built to run on fuel derived from industrial hemp, a related strain of the Cannibis Sativa plant beloved of stoners the world over and known simply, as “weed”.

    Ford claimed he’d be able to “grow automobiles from the soil”, a hedge against the metal rationing of world War Two. He dedicated 120,000 acres of soybeans to experimentation, but to no end. The total acreage devoted to “fuel” production, is unrecorded.

    Another reason for a car made from soybeans, was to help American farmers. Plus, Henry Ford seems to have had a “thing”, for soybeans. At the 1934 World’s Fair in Chicago, Ford invited reporters to a feast where he served soybean cheese, soybean crackers, soy bread and butter, soy milk, soy ice cream… The man was a veritable Bubba Gump, of soybeans. Ford was probably one of the first in this country, to regularly drink soy milk.

    Henry Ford’s own car was fitted with a soybean trunk and struck with an axe to show the material’s durability, though the axe was later revealed to have a rubber boot.

    Henry Ford’s experiment in making cars from soybeans never got past that first prototype, and came to a halt during WW2. The project was never revived, though several states adopted license plates stamped out of soybeans, a solution farm animals found to be quite delicious.

    The car itself was destroyed long ago, the ingredients for its manufacture unrecorded, but the thing lives on in the hearts of hemp enthusiasts, everywhere.

    The New York Times claimed the car body and fenders were made from soy beans, wheat and corn. Some sources opine that the car was made from Bakelite or some variant of Duroplast, a plant-based auto body substance produced in the millions, for the East German Trabant.

    One newspaper claimed that nothing ever came from Henry Ford’s soybean experiments, except whipped cream.

    1919: First nonstop transatlantic flight

    Before Charles Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic solo, two men made history with a nonstop transatlantic flight that landed in Clifden, Ireland, on June 15, 1919. John Alcock and Arthur Whitten-Brown flew a modified Vickers Vimy, a long-range bomber produced in the United Kingdom, taking off from Newfoundland in Canada on June 14, 1919, and finishing the crossing after 16 hours and 27 minutes, according to the Aviation History Online Museum.

    Congress Grants Power to Wartime Presidents

    The Constitution authorizes Congress to pass legislation necessary to execute the powers and responsibilities of the federal government. During the First and Second World Wars, Congress temporarily granted extraordinary power to the president to expedite certain wartime policies. The Department Reorganization Act (Overman Act) of 1918 gave President Woodrow Wilson broad authority to create or reorder government agencies. The War Powers Acts of 1941 and 1942 granted President Franklin D. Roosevelt extensive powers to support the war effort and provide for the nation’s defense.

    This bill merely gives the President . . . powers that are necessary to win the war, but powers that should be returned to the Congress when the war has been won.

    The Milan wars and mercenary troops

    Central Switzerland oriented itself towards the south. In 1403 Uri had bought the Leventina (upper valley of Tessin), in 1410 and 1417 they conquered some other valleys and in 1419 bought Bellinzona, but in 1422 the duke of Milan (northern Italy) re-conquered Bellinzona. The Burgundy wars (1474-1477) propagated the glory of the Swiss soldiers. The French kings and the Italian dukes recruited mercenary troops in central Switzerland. In 1512 the Swiss conquered Milan and Pavia and in 1513 they won the battle of Novarra. The old Swiss confederacy was at the summit of it's power.

    15 Things You Might Not Know About Missouri

    1. Eight different states border Missouri. Name them correctly without a map to win . our undying respect.

    2. Missouri was named after a tribe of Sioux Indians called the Missouris. While often mistranslated as “muddy water,” the word actually means “town of the large canoes.”

    3. To appeal to as many voters as possible, politicians sometimes pronounce "Missouri" two different ways—Missouree and Missouruh—in the same speech. At one time, pronunciation correlated with geography, with the -uh sound being more prevalent in rural areas. Now it's more of a generational difference.

    4. Maybe we should call it the Read Me State. Famous Missourian writers include T.S. Eliot, Maya Angelou, Mark Twain, Tennessee Williams, and Sara Teasdale.

    5. With more than 6,000 known caves, Missouri's also known as The Cave State.

    6. Richland, Missouri, is the only city in the U.S. with a cave restaurant. (Don't worry: There aren't any bats.)

    7. Harry Truman was the only U.S. President to hail from Missouri. After he left the White House in 1953, he and his wife Bess moved back to the Independence home they shared with his mother-in-law and lived off his $112.56 monthly Army pension.

    8. The 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis introduced the masses to a number of new treats, including the waffle cone, cotton candy, iced tea, and Dr Pepper.

    9. St. Louis hosted the 1904 Summer Olympics—the first Olympic Games ever held in the U.S.—at the same time as the World's Fair. It was complete chaos. Athletes competed for four and a half months with one event each day of the fair. But only 42 of the 91 events actually included competitors from other countries. The craziest part, though, was the marathon: Almost half of the runners got heat stroke, and the first-place winner cheated by hitching a car ride from mile nine to mile 19.

    10. Another event that year: climbing a greased pole.

    11. Missouri is one of 12 states with its own official horse. The Missouri Fox Trotter is a mid-sized muscular breed from the Ozarks that's popular on ranches.

    12. Earthquakes aren't just for California. Four of the largest in North American history—up to a moment magnitude of 8.0—occurred from December 1811 to February 1812 in New Madrid, Missouri.

    13. Missouri is also home to the most destructive tornado in U.S. history. The Tri-State tornado, which set down on March 18, 1925, killed 695 people, injured 2027 people, and demolished an estimated 15,000 homes throughout Missouri, Illinois and Indiana. Annapolis, Missouri, was 90 percent destroyed.

    14. The first successful parachute jump from a moving plane was made above the Jefferson Barracks military post, near St. Louis, on March 1, 1912. U.S. Army Captain Albert Berry climbed to 1,500 feet in a Benoist aircraft before positioning himself on a trapeze bar attached to the front of the plane, his parachute stored in a conical pack attached to his harness, and jumped. Air & Space magazine reports Berry saying, upon landing, “Never again! I believe I turned five somersaults on my way down … My course downward … was like a crazy arrow.” Berry completed his second jump on March 10.

    15. Aunt Jemima pancake flour was invented in St. Louis in 1889. It was the first ready-mix food to ever be sold commercially. Take that, Betty Crocker.


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